Toxicology rethinks its central belief

  title={Toxicology rethinks its central belief},
  author={Edward J. Calabrese and Linda A. Baldwin},
Hormesis demands a reappraisal of the way risks are assessed. 
Hormesis: Transforming disciplines that rely on the dose response
This article tells the story of hormesis from its conceptual and experimental origins, its dismissal by the scientific and medical communities in the first half of the 20th century, and its
“Hormesis”—An Inappropriate Extrapolation from the Specific to the Universal
The authors argue against indiscriminate application of hormesis in assessments of chemical risks for regulatory purposes and include well-established factors related to exposure and human susceptibility in risk assessments.
Historical foundations of hormesis.
  • E. Calabrese
  • Medicine
    Homeopathy : the journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy
  • 2015
Micronutrients, Hormesis and the Aptitude for the Maturation of Regulation
The potential of hormesis as the default model to assess and manage chemicals is considered in relation to micronutrients and it is proposed that hormesis could in principle address the conundrum of basically all chemicals regulation.
The Dose–Response Revolution: How Hormesis Became Significant
  • E. Calabrese
  • Medicine
    The Science of Hormesis in Health and Longevity
  • 2019
Another California Milestone: The First Application of Hormesis in Litigation and Regulation
What may be the first application of the hormesis concept in environmental assessment and litigation occurred in California within the context of an assessment of alleged continuing smelter contamination nearly a century ago.
Hormesis: why it is important to biogerontologists
A broad assessment of the hormetic dose response and its relevance to biogerontology and how the hormesis concept could be further applied in the development of new therapeutic advances in the treatment of age-related diseases is offered.
Molecular, Clinical and Environmental Toxicology
  • A. Luch
  • Biology, Chemistry
    Experientia Supplementum
  • 2012
Molecular, clinical, and environmental toxicolog , Molecular, clinical, and environmental toxicolog , کتابخانه دیجیتال جندی شاپور اهواز


Chemical hormesis: its historical foundations as a biological hypothesis
The early history of hormesis-related experimental research is reconstructed and a foundation is provided for the assessment of how the concept of hormetic dose-response relationships may have affected the nature of the bioassay especially with respect to hazard assessment practices within a modern risk assessment Eramework.
The hormetic dose-response model is more common than the threshold model in toxicology.
  • E. CalabreseL. A. Baldwin
  • Environmental Science
    Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology
  • 2003
These findings challenge the long-standing belief in the primacy of the threshold model in toxicology (and other areas of biology involving dose-response relationships) and provide strong support for the hormetic-like biphasic dose- response model characterized by a low-dose stimulation and a high-dose inhibition.
Introduction: Quantitative and Statistical Procedures to Detect and Estimate Hormetic Effects
It has been argued that the addition of a substance to a process that is already producing an adverse health effect will result in an increase in the incidence of the adverse effect no matter how small the dose, but this assumes a monotonic dose response curve.
Implications of the hormesis hypothesis for risk perception and communication
It may be a reasonable strategy to resolve the major remaining problems with hormesis within the risk expert community before demanding wide-reaching changes in regulatory practices or policies.
A theory for growth hormesis.