Toxicology for the twenty-first century

  title={Toxicology for the twenty-first century},
  author={Thomas Hartung},
The testing of substances for adverse effects on humans and the environment needs a radical overhaul if we are to meet the challenges of ensuring health and safety. 

Chemical regulators have overreached

The costs — both in animal lives and euros — of the European REACH legislation on chemical testing are escalating. Thomas Hartung and Costanza Rovida argue for a suspension of certain toxicity tests.

Genetic toxicology: Findings and challenges

The strategies and testing patterns of genotoxic compounds are discussed with the purpose of identifying potential human carcinogens, as well as compounds capable of inducing heritable mutations in humans.

Introduction: Emerging Chemicals of Concern

This chapter provides a brief overview of the definition and classification of emerging chemicals and the screening scheme for those substances, their effects on environment and human health as well as the sensitive population are discussed.

Regulatory toxicology in the twenty-first century: challenges, perspectives and possible solutions

This document summarizes key aspects of this debate in the light of the European “regulatory status quo”, while elucidating new perspectives for regulatory toxicity testing.

Food for Thought … Systems Toxicology

A "systems toxicology" approach will enable virtual experiments to be conducted that can improve the prediction of hazard and the assessment of compound toxicity.

An Integrated Experimental Design for the Assessment of Multiple Toxicological End Points in Rat Bioassays

This integrated study design is efficient in that the same generational cohort of rats used for evaluating long-term outcomes can be monitored in satellite parallel experiments to measure biomarkers and other parameters related to system-specific responses including metabolic alterations and endocrine disturbances.

Toxicity testing is evolving!

A novel systematic approach is presented to support the desired toxicity-testing methodologies that the 21st century deserves and some of the various initiatives in Europe to identify NAMs to replace or refine the current toxicity- testing methods for pharmaceuticals are considered.

Regulating chemicals: law, science, and the unbearable burdens of regulation.

The challenges of regulating industrial chemicals remain unresolved in the United States and in light of the European Union's passage of innovative principles and requirements for chemical regulation, it is no longer possible to deny the opportunity and need for reform.

Teratology Study Guidelines: An Overview.

In this chapter the approved guidelines for standard methods and alternative methods according to their regulatory and scientific status are enumerated and described.



Transforming Environmental Health Protection

We propose a shift from primarily in vivo animal studies to in vitro assays, in vivo assays with lower organisms, and computational modeling for toxicity assessments.

Toxicology: A risky business

Toxicology research should urgently appraise its performance and join mainstream biomedical science, according to an urgent review of current research.

Toward a New Toxicology — Evolution or Revolution?

  • T. Hartung
  • Biology
    Alternatives to laboratory animals : ATLA
  • 2008
This essay summarises the author's thoughts on the current paradigm change in toxicology. The driving factors and mechanisms of this change, and obstacles to it, are discussed. Current developments

The dawning of a new age of toxicology.

Toxicology is changing from being a predominantly observational craft and regulatory support discipline back to a natural science with all its dimensions, which requires a radical paradigm shift in the approach to safety assessments, and turns the traditional procedures upside down.

Toward an evidence-based toxicology

After a self-critical reassessment of current practices and evaluation of the thus generated information, such an evidence-based toxicology (EBT) promises to make better use of resources and to increase the quality of results, facilitating their interpretation.

Future of toxicology--low-dose toxicology and risk--benefit analysis.

Refocusing from high- to low-dose effects turns the field from a science focusing on adverse effects into a science studying the biological effects of chemical compounds on living organisms, taking into account the realization that the ultimate biological effect of a chemical may vary with its dose, the end point or target organ considered, and/or the combined exposure with other chemicals.

Future of toxicology--mechanisms of toxicity and drug safety: where do we go from here?

  • J. Stevens
  • Biology, Medicine
    Chemical research in toxicology
  • 2006
A case is built for focusing solutions on defined problems within the current safety testing paradigm rather than imposing wholesale change and targets for application of new technologies, including in silico screening, biomarkers, surrogate assays and 'omic technologies, are outlined.

Bias in toxicology

In this contribution, major potential sources of bias in toxicological research and testing are identified and it is suggested that such investigations should be given priority.

Food for thought ... on the evolution of toxicology and the phasing out of animal testing.

There is something brewing in the field of toxicology: Last year's vision and strategy document published by the US National Academy of Sciences (NRC, 2007) has excited many toxicologists on both

A Toxicology for the 21st Century—Mapping the Road Ahead

  • T. Hartung
  • Political Science
    Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology
  • 2009
The landmark publication by the National Research Council putting forward a vision of a toxicology for the 21st century in 2007 has created an atmosphere of departure in the field, indicating that this is an idea whose time has come.