Toxicology for the twenty-first century

@article{Hartung2009ToxicologyFT,
  title={Toxicology for the twenty-first century},
  author={Thomas Hartung},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2009},
  volume={460},
  pages={208-212}
}
The testing of substances for adverse effects on humans and the environment needs a radical overhaul if we are to meet the challenges of ensuring health and safety. 

Chemical regulators have overreached

The costs — both in animal lives and euros — of the European REACH legislation on chemical testing are escalating. Thomas Hartung and Costanza Rovida argue for a suspension of certain toxicity tests.

Genetic toxicology: Findings and challenges

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The strategies and testing patterns of genotoxic compounds are discussed with the purpose of identifying potential human carcinogens, as well as compounds capable of inducing heritable mutations in humans.

Introduction: Emerging Chemicals of Concern

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This chapter provides a brief overview of the definition and classification of emerging chemicals and the screening scheme for those substances, their effects on environment and human health as well as the sensitive population are discussed.

Regulatory toxicology in the twenty-first century: challenges, perspectives and possible solutions

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This document summarizes key aspects of this debate in the light of the European “regulatory status quo”, while elucidating new perspectives for regulatory toxicity testing.

Food for Thought … Systems Toxicology

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A "systems toxicology" approach will enable virtual experiments to be conducted that can improve the prediction of hazard and the assessment of compound toxicity.

An Integrated Experimental Design for the Assessment of Multiple Toxicological End Points in Rat Bioassays

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This integrated study design is efficient in that the same generational cohort of rats used for evaluating long-term outcomes can be monitored in satellite parallel experiments to measure biomarkers and other parameters related to system-specific responses including metabolic alterations and endocrine disturbances.

Toxicity testing is evolving!

TLDR
A novel systematic approach is presented to support the desired toxicity-testing methodologies that the 21st century deserves and some of the various initiatives in Europe to identify NAMs to replace or refine the current toxicity- testing methods for pharmaceuticals are considered.

Regulating chemicals: law, science, and the unbearable burdens of regulation.

TLDR
The challenges of regulating industrial chemicals remain unresolved in the United States and in light of the European Union's passage of innovative principles and requirements for chemical regulation, it is no longer possible to deny the opportunity and need for reform.

Teratology Study Guidelines: An Overview.

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In this chapter the approved guidelines for standard methods and alternative methods according to their regulatory and scientific status are enumerated and described.
...

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...