Toxicological effects of the sunscreen UV filter, benzophenone-2, on planulae and in vitro cells of the coral, Stylophora pistillata

@article{Downs2013ToxicologicalEO,
  title={Toxicological effects of the sunscreen UV filter, benzophenone-2, on planulae and in vitro cells of the coral, Stylophora pistillata},
  author={Craig A. Downs and Esti Kramarsky-Winter and John E. Fauth and Roee Segal and Omri Bronstein and Rina Jeger and Yona Lichtenfeld and Cheryl M. Woodley and Paul L. Pennington and Ariel Kushmaro and Yossi Loya},
  journal={Ecotoxicology},
  year={2013},
  volume={23},
  pages={175-191}
}
Benzophenone-2 (BP-2) is an additive to personal-care products and commercial solutions that protects against the damaging effects of ultraviolet light. BP-2 is an “emerging contaminant of concern” that is often released as a pollutant through municipal and boat/ship wastewater discharges and landfill leachates, as well as through residential septic fields and unmanaged cesspits. Although BP-2 may be a contaminant on coral reefs, its environmental toxicity to reefs is unknown. This poses a… 

Figures from this paper

Toxicopathological Effects of the Sunscreen UV Filter, Oxybenzone (Benzophenone-3), on Coral Planulae and Cultured Primary Cells and Its Environmental Contamination in Hawaii and the U.S. Virgin Islands
TLDR
Oxybenzone poses a hazard to coral reef conservation and threatens the resiliency of coral reefs to climate change, and is a skeletal endocrine disruptor to corals.
Acute toxicity testing of TiO2-based vs. oxybenzone-based sunscreens on clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris)
TLDR
The data indicate that at an exposure level of 100 mg/L oxybenzone-containing sunscreen had a negative impact on mortality, leading to 25% death by the end of the 97-h testing period, and physical barrier sunscreens, such as non-nano-titanium dioxide (TiO2), have been suggested as a replacement.
Effects of the organic UV filters, oxybenxone and 4-methylbenzylidene champor, on the photobiology of the hexacoral Zoanthus sp.
Coral reefs are extremely complex and productive ecosystems, providing habitat for thousands of marine species. Despite their ecological and socioeconomic importance, coral reefs are globally
Towards the Development of Standardized Bioassays for Corals: Acute Toxicity of the UV Filter Benzophenone-3 to Scleractinian Coral Larvae
Coral reefs have been declining globally at a historically unprecedented rate. Ultraviolet (UV) filters used in sunscreens may contribute to this decline at local scales, which has already led to
Photochemical response of the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata to some sunscreen ingredients
Ultraviolet (UV) filters and preservatives, which are common constituents of sunscreens and other cosmetics, are reported as a threat for coastal coral reef ecosystems; however, few studies have
The Effects of the UV-Blocker Oxybenzone (Benzophenone-3) on Planulae Swimming and Metamorphosis of the Scyphozoans Cassiopea xamachana and Cassiopea frondosa
Benzophenones are UV-blockers found in most common sunscreens. The ability of Scyphozoan planula larvae of Cassiopea xamachana and C. frondosa to swim and complete metamorphosis in concentrations
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 128 REFERENCES
Effects of the UV filter benzophenone-2 on reproduction in fish.
Developmental toxicity of UV filters and environmental exposure: a review.
TLDR
The data indicate that the potential risk posed by endocrine active UV filters warrants further investigations, and expression and oestrogen sensitivity of oestrogens-regulated genes and nuclear receptor coregulator levels were altered at mRNA and protein levels in adult uterus, prostate and brain regions involved in gonadal control and sexual behaviour.
In vitro and in vivo estrogenicity of UV screens.
TLDR
The findings indicate that UV screens should be tested for endocrine activity, in view of possible long-term effects in humans and wildlife.
Endocrine activity and developmental toxicity of cosmetic UV filters--an update.
Estrogenic activity of ternary UV filter mixtures in fish (Pimephales promelas) - an analysis with nonlinear isobolograms.
  • P. Kunz, K. Fent
  • Environmental Science
    Toxicology and applied pharmacology
  • 2009
Sunscreens Cause Coral Bleaching by Promoting Viral Infections
TLDR
It is concluded that sunscreens, by promoting viral infection, potentially play an important role in coral bleaching in areas prone to high levels of recreational use by humans.
Profiling of benzophenone derivatives using fish and human estrogen receptor-specific in vitro bioassays.
Comparison of in vitro and in vivo estrogenic activity of UV filters in fish.
TLDR
The study shows, for the first time, estrogenic activities of UV filters in fish both in vitro and in vivo, and proposes that receptor-based assays should be used for in vitro screening prior to in vivo testing, leading to environmental risk assessments based on combined, complementary, and appropriate species-related assays for hormonal activity.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...