Toxicological detection of pholcodine and its metabolites in urine and hair using radio immunoassay, fluorescence polarisation immunoassay, enzyme immunoassay and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

@article{Maurer2005ToxicologicalDO,
  title={Toxicological detection of pholcodine and its metabolites in urine and hair using radio immunoassay, fluorescence polarisation immunoassay, enzyme immunoassay and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry},
  author={Hans H. Maurer and C. F. Fritz},
  journal={International Journal of Legal Medicine},
  year={2005},
  volume={104},
  pages={43-46}
}
SummaryPholcodine (3-O-(2′-morpholinoethyl)-morphine) is used in many countries as an antitussive without analgesic or addictive properties. It is of forensic relevance that pholcodine interferes with opiate immunoassays. In this paper a gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) procedure for the precise and sensitive detection of pholcodine and its metabolites in urine and hair, after acid hydrolysis, extraction and acetylation, is presented. Furthermore, detection of pholcodine using… Expand
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It can be concluded that the low metabolism of the rather lipophilic pholcodine is the reason for the very slow elimination. Expand
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TLDR
Pholcodine showed positive results for opiates 2-6 weeks after intake when the urines were analysed with the RIA-method and the EMIT-method, suggesting its prolonged excretion could represent a hazard in interpreting the results from drug analyses of urines. Expand
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TLDR
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