Toxicity of conventional, elemental chlorine‐free, and totally chlorine‐free kraft‐pulp bleaching effluents assessed by shortterm lethal and sublethal bioassays

  title={Toxicity of conventional, elemental chlorine‐free, and totally chlorine‐free kraft‐pulp bleaching effluents assessed by shortterm lethal and sublethal bioassays},
  author={Maria Tarkpea and Britta Eklund and Margareta Linde and Bengt Erik Bengtsson},
  journal={Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry},
The toxicity of nine effluents from Swedish kraft‐pulp mills using conventional, elemental chlorine‐free (ECF) and totally chlorine‐free (TCF) bleaching processes was studied. Effluents represented six different processes: conventional‐softwood 30% ClO2; ECF‐softwood; TCF‐hardwood, for which all the samples were taken before and after secondary treatment; conventional‐softwood 8% ClO2; TCF‐softwood O3/H2O2; and TCF‐softwood H2O2. Comparison of effluents, which had not undergone secondary… 

Comparison of a test battery for assessing the toxicity of a bleached-kraft pulp mill effluent before and after secondary treatment implementation

The present results demonstrated not only that secondary treatment efficaciously reduced effluent toxicity toward the selected test organisms but also the usefulness of a battery of tests to characterize the toxicity of pulp mill effluents.

Comparison of Fish Toxicity & Microtox Toxicity of Luminescent Bacteria Due to Bleach Plant Effluent Released from Agro & Wood Based Pulp and Paper Mills

Toxicity studies show that the E-stage effluents are having high fish mortality rate at lower % volume concentration & high % inhibition of Luminescent bacteria, indicating that it is more toxic than the other stage bleach effluent.

Assessment of water pollution in different bleaching based paper manufacturing and textile dyeing industries in India

Paper industries using different raw materials such as hard wood, bamboo, baggase, rice-straw and waste papers and bleaching chemicals were studied to estimate organic pollution load and Adsorbable Organic Halides per ton of production.

Effects of pulp and paper mill discharges on caged rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): Biomarker responses along a pollution gradient in the Biobio River, Chile

A significant endocrine–disrupting effect was evidenced by significant increments in gonad somatic index and plasma vitellogenin levels combined with an induction of gonad maturation in trout caged at the impact and postimpact areas.

Use of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in pulp mills and effects on metal mobility and primary production

The presence of EDTA in the dissolved fraction of the pulp mill effluent water increased the growth stimulation in 20 to 40% (v/v), possibly because of the increased availability of essential metals like iron, zinc, and copper.

Reproductive, physiological, and biochemical responses in juvenile female rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to sediment from pulp and paper mill industrial discharge areas

Histological analysis of the gonadal tissue showed an induction of gonadal maturation in fish exposed to sediment coming from the impact and postimpact zones, and evidence that the sediment associated with pulp mill effluent discharges produces some effects in fish under laboratory conditions was shown.

Dissolving lignin components in spent liquor of simple inorganic complex bleaching eucalyptus pulp

Promising results from the catalytic bleaching (Cat-bleaching) of oxygen-delignified hardwood kraft pulp (Eucalyptus urophylla × Eucalyptus grandis) with simple inorganic complexes prompted interest



The effects of a secondary-treated bleached kraft mill effluent on aquatic organisms as assessed by short-term and long-term laboratory tests.

A significant finding of this work was that effluent concentrations > or = 2.5% caused lower egg production as well as changes in the gender balance (i.e., increased numbers of individuals with male secondary sexual characteristics) of the fish.

Reliability of the Bacterial Luminescence Assay for Determination of the Toxicity of Pure Compounds and Complex Effluents

The data show that a good correlation exists between the bacterial luminescence assay and conventional testing procedures, and the reproducibility of the assay using sodium lauryl sulfate as a standard displayed a coefficient of variation of 15 to 20 percent.

A new fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) subchronic toxicity test

Results indicate that this subchronic toxicity test gives a good estimate of chronic toxicity of effluents to the fathead minnow.

A study of the relationship between laboratory bioassay response and AOX content for pulp mill effluents

Nous avons caracterise les effluents d'usine de pâte kraft blanchie ayant subi des traitements primaire et secondaire, en vue d'etablir s'il existe des relations entre les parametres de groupe

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development

  • Economics
    International Organization
  • 1964
The second meeting of the Ministerial Council of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) was held in Paris on November 27–28, 1962, under the chairmanship of Mr. Donald

A comparison of the environmental quality of elemental chlorine-free (ECF) and totally chlorine-free (TCF) hardwood bleach plant effluents

  • Miscellaneous Report 298. Pulp and Paper Research Institute
  • 1994

Probit Analysis (3rd ed).