Toxicity of amphetamines: an update

@article{Carvalho2012ToxicityOA,
  title={Toxicity of amphetamines: an update},
  author={M{\'a}rcia Carvalho and Helena Carmo and Vera Marisa Costa and J P Capela and Helena Pontes and Fernando Remi{\~a}o and F{\'e}lix Carvalho and Maria de Lourdes Bastos},
  journal={Archives of Toxicology},
  year={2012},
  volume={86},
  pages={1167-1231}
}
Amphetamines represent a class of psychotropic compounds, widely abused for their stimulant, euphoric, anorectic, and, in some cases, emphathogenic, entactogenic, and hallucinogenic properties. These compounds derive from the β-phenylethylamine core structure and are kinetically and dynamically characterized by easily crossing the blood–brain barrier, to resist brain biotransformation and to release monoamine neurotransmitters from nerve endings. Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as… CONTINUE READING

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Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although there is still scarce knowledge from novel amphetamines to draw mechanistic insights , the long - studied classical amphetaminesamphetamine itself , as well as methamphetamine and MDMA , provide plenty of data that may be useful to predict toxicological outcome to improvident abusers and are for that reason the main focus of this review .
Although there is still scarce knowledge from novel amphetamines to draw mechanistic insights , the long - studied classical amphetamines — amphetamine itself , as well as methamphetamine and MDMA , provide plenty of data that may be useful to predict toxicological outcome to improvident abusers and are for that reason the main focus of this review .
Although intoxications by amphetamines continue to be common causes of emergency department and hospital admissions , it is frequent to find the sophism that amphetamine derivatives , namely those appearing more recently , are relatively safe .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although there is still scarce knowledge from novel amphetamines to draw mechanistic insights , the long - studied classical amphetaminesamphetamine itself , as well as methamphetamine and MDMA , provide plenty of data that may be useful to predict toxicological outcome to improvident abusers and are for that reason the main focus of this review .
Although there is still scarce knowledge from novel amphetamines to draw mechanistic insights , the long - studied classical amphetamines — amphetamine itself , as well as methamphetamine and MDMA , provide plenty of data that may be useful to predict toxicological outcome to improvident abusers and are for that reason the main focus of this review .
Although intoxications by amphetamines continue to be common causes of emergency department and hospital admissions , it is frequent to find the sophism that amphetamine derivatives , namely those appearing more recently , are relatively safe .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although there is still scarce knowledge from novel amphetamines to draw mechanistic insights , the long - studied classical amphetaminesamphetamine itself , as well as methamphetamine and MDMA , provide plenty of data that may be useful to predict toxicological outcome to improvident abusers and are for that reason the main focus of this review .
Although there is still scarce knowledge from novel amphetamines to draw mechanistic insights , the long - studied classical amphetamines — amphetamine itself , as well as methamphetamine and MDMA , provide plenty of data that may be useful to predict toxicological outcome to improvident abusers and are for that reason the main focus of this review .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although intoxications by amphetamines continue to be common causes of emergency department and hospital admissions , it is frequent to find the sophism that amphetamine derivatives , namely those appearing more recently , are relatively safe .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although there is still scarce knowledge from novel amphetamines to draw mechanistic insights , the long - studied classical amphetamines — amphetamine itself , as well as methamphetamine and MDMA , provide plenty of data that may be useful to predict toxicological outcome to improvident abusers and are for that reason the main focus of this review .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although there is still scarce knowledge from novel amphetamines to draw mechanistic insights , the long - studied classical amphetamines — amphetamine itself , as well as methamphetamine and MDMA , provide plenty of data that may be useful to predict toxicological outcome to improvident abusers and are for that reason the main focus of this review .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although there is still scarce knowledge from novel amphetamines to draw mechanistic insights , the long - studied classical amphetamines — amphetamine itself , as well as methamphetamine and MDMA , provide plenty of data that may be useful to predict toxicological outcome to improvident abusers and are for that reason the main focus of this review .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although there is still scarce knowledge from novel amphetamines to draw mechanistic insights , the long - studied classical amphetamines — amphetamine itself , as well as methamphetamine and MDMA , provide plenty of data that may be useful to predict toxicological outcome to improvident abusers and are for that reason the main focus of this review .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although there is still scarce knowledge from novel amphetamines to draw mechanistic insights , the long - studied classical amphetamines — amphetamine itself , as well as methamphetamine and MDMA , provide plenty of data that may be useful to predict toxicological outcome to improvident abusers and are for that reason the main focus of this review .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although there is still scarce knowledge from novel amphetamines to draw mechanistic insights , the long - studied classical amphetamines — amphetamine itself , as well as methamphetamine and MDMA , provide plenty of data that may be useful to predict toxicological outcome to improvident abusers and are for that reason the main focus of this review .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although there is still scarce knowledge from novel amphetamines to draw mechanistic insights , the long - studied classical amphetamines — amphetamine itself , as well as methamphetamine and MDMA , provide plenty of data that may be useful to predict toxicological outcome to improvident abusers and are for that reason the main focus of this review .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although there is still scarce knowledge from novel amphetamines to draw mechanistic insights , the long - studied classical amphetamines — amphetamine itself , as well as methamphetamine and MDMA , provide plenty of data that may be useful to predict toxicological outcome to improvident abusers and are for that reason the main focus of this review .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although there is still scarce knowledge from novel amphetamines to draw mechanistic insights , the long - studied classical amphetaminesamphetamine itself , as well as methamphetamine and MDMA , provide plenty of data that may be useful to predict toxicological outcome to improvident abusers and are for that reason the main focus of this review .
Although there is still scarce knowledge from novel amphetamines to draw mechanistic insights , the long - studied classical amphetamines — amphetamine itself , as well as methamphetamine and MDMA , provide plenty of data that may be useful to predict toxicological outcome to improvident abusers and are for that reason the main focus of this review .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although intoxications by amphetamines continue to be common causes of emergency department and hospital admissions , it is frequent to find the sophism that amphetamine derivatives , namely those appearing more recently , are relatively safe .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although there is still scarce knowledge from novel amphetamines to draw mechanistic insights , the long - studied classical amphetaminesamphetamine itself , as well as methamphetamine and MDMA , provide plenty of data that may be useful to predict toxicological outcome to improvident abusers and are for that reason the main focus of this review .
Although there is still scarce knowledge from novel amphetamines to draw mechanistic insights , the long - studied classical amphetamines — amphetamine itself , as well as methamphetamine and MDMA , provide plenty of data that may be useful to predict toxicological outcome to improvident abusers and are for that reason the main focus of this review .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although intoxications by amphetamines continue to be common causes of emergency department and hospital admissions , it is frequent to find the sophism that amphetamine derivatives , namely those appearing more recently , are relatively safe .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
AmphetaminesChemical structure ofMethamphetamine
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although there is still scarce knowledge from novel amphetamines to draw mechanistic insights , the long - studied classical amphetamines — amphetamine itself , as well as methamphetamine and MDMA , provide plenty of data that may be useful to predict toxicological outcome to improvident abusers and are for that reason the main focus of this review .
Although there is still scarce knowledge from novel amphetamines to draw mechanistic insights , the long - studied classical amphetamines — amphetamine itself , as well as methamphetamine and MDMA , provide plenty of data that may be useful to predict toxicological outcome to improvident abusers and are for that reason the main focus of this review .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although there is still scarce knowledge from novel amphetamines to draw mechanistic insights , the long - studied classical amphetamines — amphetamine itself , as well as methamphetamine and MDMA , provide plenty of data that may be useful to predict toxicological outcome to improvident abusers and are for that reason the main focus of this review .
Although there is still scarce knowledge from novel amphetamines to draw mechanistic insights , the long - studied classical amphetamines — amphetamine itself , as well as methamphetamine and MDMA , provide plenty of data that may be useful to predict toxicological outcome to improvident abusers and are for that reason the main focus of this review .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although there is still scarce knowledge from novel amphetamines to draw mechanistic insights , the long - studied classical amphetamines — amphetamine itself , as well as methamphetamine and MDMA , provide plenty of data that may be useful to predict toxicological outcome to improvident abusers and are for that reason the main focus of this review .
Although there is still scarce knowledge from novel amphetamines to draw mechanistic insights , the long - studied classical amphetamines — amphetamine itself , as well as methamphetamine and MDMA , provide plenty of data that may be useful to predict toxicological outcome to improvident abusers and are for that reason the main focus of this review .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although there is still scarce knowledge from novel amphetamines to draw mechanistic insights , the long - studied classical amphetamines — amphetamine itself , as well as methamphetamine and MDMA , provide plenty of data that may be useful to predict toxicological outcome to improvident abusers and are for that reason the main focus of this review .
Although there is still scarce knowledge from novel amphetamines to draw mechanistic insights , the long - studied classical amphetamines — amphetamine itself , as well as methamphetamine and MDMA , provide plenty of data that may be useful to predict toxicological outcome to improvident abusers and are for that reason the main focus of this review .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although there is still scarce knowledge from novel amphetamines to draw mechanistic insights , the long - studied classical amphetamines — amphetamine itself , as well as methamphetamine and MDMA , provide plenty of data that may be useful to predict toxicological outcome to improvident abusers and are for that reason the main focus of this review .
Although there is still scarce knowledge from novel amphetamines to draw mechanistic insights , the long - studied classical amphetamines — amphetamine itself , as well as methamphetamine and MDMA , provide plenty of data that may be useful to predict toxicological outcome to improvident abusers and are for that reason the main focus of this review .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although there is still scarce knowledge from novel amphetamines to draw mechanistic insights , the long - studied classical amphetamines — amphetamine itself , as well as methamphetamine and MDMA , provide plenty of data that may be useful to predict toxicological outcome to improvident abusers and are for that reason the main focus of this review .
Although there is still scarce knowledge from novel amphetamines to draw mechanistic insights , the long - studied classical amphetamines — amphetamine itself , as well as methamphetamine and MDMA , provide plenty of data that may be useful to predict toxicological outcome to improvident abusers and are for that reason the main focus of this review .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although there is still scarce knowledge from novel amphetamines to draw mechanistic insights , the long - studied classical amphetamines — amphetamine itself , as well as methamphetamine and MDMA , provide plenty of data that may be useful to predict toxicological outcome to improvident abusers and are for that reason the main focus of this review .
Although there is still scarce knowledge from novel amphetamines to draw mechanistic insights , the long - studied classical amphetamines — amphetamine itself , as well as methamphetamine and MDMA , provide plenty of data that may be useful to predict toxicological outcome to improvident abusers and are for that reason the main focus of this review .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although there is still scarce knowledge from novel amphetamines to draw mechanistic insights , the long - studied classical amphetamines — amphetamine itself , as well as methamphetamine and MDMA , provide plenty of data that may be useful to predict toxicological outcome to improvident abusers and are for that reason the main focus of this review .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although there is still scarce knowledge from novel amphetamines to draw mechanistic insights , the long - studied classical amphetamines — amphetamine itself , as well as methamphetamine and MDMA , provide plenty of data that may be useful to predict toxicological outcome to improvident abusers and are for that reason the main focus of this review .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although there is still scarce knowledge from novel amphetamines to draw mechanistic insights , the long - studied classical amphetamines — amphetamine itself , as well as methamphetamine and MDMA , provide plenty of data that may be useful to predict toxicological outcome to improvident abusers and are for that reason the main focus of this review .
Although there is still scarce knowledge from novel amphetamines to draw mechanistic insights , the long - studied classical amphetamines — amphetamine itself , as well as methamphetamine and MDMA , provide plenty of data that may be useful to predict toxicological outcome to improvident abusers and are for that reason the main focus of this review .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although there is still scarce knowledge from novel amphetamines to draw mechanistic insights , the long - studied classical amphetamines — amphetamine itself , as well as methamphetamine and MDMA , provide plenty of data that may be useful to predict toxicological outcome to improvident abusers and are for that reason the main focus of this review .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although there is still scarce knowledge from novel amphetamines to draw mechanistic insights , the long - studied classical amphetamines — amphetamine itself , as well as methamphetamine and MDMA , provide plenty of data that may be useful to predict toxicological outcome to improvident abusers and are for that reason the main focus of this review .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although there is still scarce knowledge from novel amphetamines to draw mechanistic insights , the long - studied classical amphetamines — amphetamine itself , as well as methamphetamine and MDMA , provide plenty of data that may be useful to predict toxicological outcome to improvident abusers and are for that reason the main focus of this review .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although there is still scarce knowledge from novel amphetamines to draw mechanistic insights , the long - studied classical amphetamines — amphetamine itself , as well as methamphetamine and MDMA , provide plenty of data that may be useful to predict toxicological outcome to improvident abusers and are for that reason the main focus of this review .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although there is still scarce knowledge from novel amphetamines to draw mechanistic insights , the long - studied classical amphetamines — amphetamine itself , as well as methamphetamine and MDMA , provide plenty of data that may be useful to predict toxicological outcome to improvident abusers and are for that reason the main focus of this review .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although there is still scarce knowledge from novel amphetamines to draw mechanistic insights , the long - studied classical amphetamines — amphetamine itself , as well as methamphetamine and MDMA , provide plenty of data that may be useful to predict toxicological outcome to improvident abusers and are for that reason the main focus of this review .
Although there is still scarce knowledge from novel amphetamines to draw mechanistic insights , the long - studied classical amphetamines — amphetamine itself , as well as methamphetamine and MDMA , provide plenty of data that may be useful to predict toxicological outcome to improvident abusers and are for that reason the main focus of this review .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although there is still scarce knowledge from novel amphetamines to draw mechanistic insights , the long - studied classical amphetamines — amphetamine itself , as well as methamphetamine and MDMA , provide plenty of data that may be useful to predict toxicological outcome to improvident abusers and are for that reason the main focus of this review .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
Although amphetamines are widely acknowledged as synthetic drugs , of which amphetamine , methamphetamine , and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ( MDMA , ecstasy ) are well - known examples , humans have used natural amphetamines for several millenniums , through the consumption of amphetamines produced in plants , namely cathinone ( khat ) , obtained from the plant Catha edulis and ephedrine , obtained from various plants in the genus Ephedra .
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