Toxicity of Chlorine Dioxide in Drinking Water

  title={Toxicity of Chlorine Dioxide in Drinking Water},
  author={Mohamed S. Abdel‐Rahman and Daniel Couri and Richard J. Bull},
  journal={International Journal of Toxicology},
  pages={277 - 284}
Chlorine dioxide (CIO2) is currently being considered as an alternate to chlorine as a disinfectant for public water supplies. Studies were conducted to determine the toxicity of CIO2 (0, 1, 10, 100, 1000 mg/L) and its metabolites, CIO- 2 and CIO- 3 (10, 100 mg/L) in drinking water in rats. After 9 months treatment the osmotic fragility of the red blood cells was decreased in all treatment groups, while a decreased blood glutathione was only observed in the metabolite groups. At 2, 4, and 6… 

Tables from this paper

Pharmacodynamics and toxicity of chlorine in drinking water in the rat

Chlorine administered chronically in drinking water for 3 months increased the incorporation of 3H‐thymidine into nuclei of rat kidney and testes in the 100 mg 1−1 group.

The Kinetics of Chlorite and Chlorate in the Rat

Radioactivity was highest in whole blood, followed by packed cells, plasma, stomach, testes, skin, lung, kidney, duodenum, carcass, spleen, ileum, brain, bone marrow, and liver in 36CIO- 2 treatment, and in the 36C IO- 2, the excretion most likely represented saturation of the biotransformation and excretion pathways.

Toxicity of monochloramine in rat: an alternative drinking water disinfectant.

Monochloramine administered in drinking water for 3 mo increased the incorporation of [3H]thymidine into nuclei of rat kidney and spleen in the 1- and 10- mg/l groups, while the incorporation in testes was increased only in the 100-mg/l group.

Subchronic Sodium Chlorate Exposure in Drinking Water Results in a Concentration-Dependent Increase in Rat Thyroid Follicular Cell Hyperplasia

Thyroid hormone levels were altered significantly after 4 and 21 days, and male rats are more sensitive to the effects of NaClO3 treatment than females, which can be used to estimate the human health risk that would be associated with using ClO 2, rather than chlorine, to disinfect drinking water.

Chlorine dioxide and hemodialysis.

Sodium chlorate, a herbicide and major water disinfectant byproduct, generates reactive oxygen species and induces oxidative damage in human erythrocytes

Results show that NaClO3 induces oxidative stress in human erythrocytes, which results in extensive membrane damage and lowers the antioxidant response.

Efficacy of Chlorine Dioxide as a Gas and in Solution in the Inactivation of Two Trichothecene Mycotoxins

Data show that ClO2 (in solution) can be effective for detoxification of roridin A or verrucarin A at selected concentrations and exposure times.

Effect of Exogenous Glutathione, Glutathione Reductase, Chlorine Dioxide, and Chlorite on Osmotic Fragility of Rat Blood In Vitro

The formation of disulfide bonds between sulfhydryl groups in erythrocytic membranes and hemoglobin, causing precipitation of hemoglobin (yielding apparent resistance to hemolysis) can account for the difference between the hemolyses before and after the addition of GR.

Sodium chlorite increases production of reactive oxygen species that impair the antioxidant system and cause morphological changes in human erythrocytes

Results show that NaClO2 induces oxidative stress in human erythrocytes, damages the membrane, and impairs the cellular antioxidant defence system, which can shorten the life span of ery throatcytes in blood resulting in red cell senescence.

Sodium chlorate, a major water disinfection byproduct, alters brush border membrane enzymes, carbohydrate metabolism and impairs antioxidant system of Wistar rat intestine

Oral administration of NaClO3 decreases the activities of BBM enzymes, induces oxidative stress, alters metabolic pathways, and impairs the antioxidant system of rat intestine, which supports the biochemical results showing NaCl O3 dose‐dependent increase in tissue damage.



Chlorine dioxide metabolism in rat.

The 36Cl concentration in washed packed cells indicated that 36Cl readily exchanges with chloride of saline, and at maximum absorption the percentage of ClO; formed in plasma from an initial oral dose of 10 mg/l 36ClO, was higher than from a 100mg/l dose.

Kinetics of Cl02 and effects of Cl02, Cl02-, and Cl03- in drinking water on blood glutathione and hemolysis in rat and chicken.

ClO2, ClO2-, and ClO3- given daily in drinking water decreased blood glutathione, decreased osmotic fragility, and changed the morphology of erythrocytes in both chicken and rat after two months.

Oxidative damage to the erythrocyte induced by sodium chlorite, in vivo.

Chlorite-induced decreases in glutathione in vivo were demonstrated to enhance formation of hydrogen peroxide when treated further with chlorite in vitro, and particular attention must be paid to individuals sensitive to hemolytic anemia.

Oxidative hemolysis and precipitation of hemoglobin. I. Heinz body anemias as an acceleration of red cell aging.

Studies of compounds such as phenylhydrazine, which are active against red cells in vitro as well as in vivo, have shown that hemoglobin may be changed in part to methemo-, and there has been extensive debate as to the identity and significance of the hemoglobin discoloration following the adiministration of these compounds.

Oxidative damage to the erythrocyte induced by sodium chlorite, in vitro.

The ability of sodium chlorite to react with constituents of the erythrocyte, in vitro, was examined and compared to that of nitrite, which found chlorite was found to deplete ery Throcyte glutathione, which was accompanied by an increase in hydrogen peroxide generation.

A study of the conditions and mechanism of the diphenylamine reaction for the colorimetric estimation of deoxyribonucleic acid.

  • K. Burton
  • Chemistry
    The Biochemical journal
  • 1956
The present study arose from the observation that a more intense colour was sometimes produced if, instead of being heated at 1000 for 10 min., the reaction mixture was allowed to stand overnight at room temperature.

Factors influencing relative rates of synthesis of adult and fetal hemoglobin in vitro.

The present investigation concerns the effect of cellular environment on the relative quantities of fetal and adult hemoglobin synthesized in vitro by the reticulocytes of umbilical cord blood, as determined by the rates of Fe59 incorporation into heme and of C14-leucine incorporation into globin.

An Improved Diphenylamine Method for the Estimation of Deoxyribonucleic Acid

Many plant tissues contain very low levels of DNA and in such circumstances it is necessary to utilize a method of estimation of extreme sensitivity coupled with a low reagent blank. In this respect