Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy

@article{Krewski2010ToxicityTI,
  title={Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy},
  author={Daniel Krewski and Daniel Acosta and Melvin E. Andersen and Henry Anderson and John C. Bailar and Kim Boekelheide and Robert N. Brent and Gail Charnley and Vivian G. Cheung and Sidney Green and Karl T. Kelsey and Nancy I Kerkvliet and Abby A. Li and Lawrence E Mccray and Otto A. Meyer and Reid Patterson and William D. Pennie and Robert A. Scala and Gina M. Solomon and Martin L. Stephens and James D. Yager and Lauren Zeise and Staff of Committee on Toxicity Testing and Assessm},
  journal={Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B},
  year={2010},
  volume={13},
  pages={138 - 51}
}
  • D. Krewski, D. Acosta, Staff of Committee on Toxicity Testing and Assessm
  • Published 17 June 2010
  • Biology
  • Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B
With the release of the landmark report Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy, the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, in 2007, precipitated a major change in the way toxicity testing is conducted. It envisions increased efficiency in toxicity testing and decreased animal usage by transitioning from current expensive and lengthy in vivo testing with qualitative endpoints to in vitro toxicity pathway assays on human cells or cell lines using robotic high-throughput… 
Toxicity testing in the 21st century: bringing the vision to life.
  • M. Andersen, D. Krewski
  • Biology
    Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology
  • 2009
TLDR
A broad scientific discussion of this new vision for the future of toxicity testing is needed to motivate a departure from the traditional high dose animal-based toxicological tests, with its attendant challenges for dose and species extrapolation, towards a new approach more firmly grounded in human biology.
The Future of Toxicity Testing
TLDR
An overview of the scientific tools and technologies that will form the core of the NRC vision for toxicity testing are provided, including the development of rapidly performed in vitro screening assays using human cells and cell lines or human tissue surrogates to efficiently identify environmental agents producing critical pathway perturbations.
Biologically relevant exposure science for 21st century toxicity testing.
  • E. Hubal
  • Medicine
    Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology
  • 2009
TLDR
Invest in 21st century exposure science is now required to fully realize the potential of the NRC vision for toxicity testing and to incorporate consideration of lifestage, genetic susceptibility, and interaction of nonchemical stressors for holistic assessment of risk factors associated with complex environmental disease.
Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: Implications for Human Health Risk Assessment
TLDR
The report describes how current and anticipated scientific advances can be expected to transform toxicity testing to permit broader coverage of the universe of potentially toxic chemicals to which humans may be exposed, using more timely and more cost‐effective methods for toxicity testing.
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TLDR
Some of the issues that have to be addressed in order to make in vitro toxicity testing a reality in the twenty-first century are highlighted.
Commentary on ‘‘Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A vision and a Strategy’’
The vision of the NAS Committee represents a transition in toxicology from an emphasis on the study of apical endpoints in whole animals to a focus on the study of pathway perturbations, based
Current standing and future prospects for the technologies proposed to transform toxicity testing in the 21st century.
TLDR
The goal of this review is to evaluate the technologies proposed as to their maturation to transform toxicity testing in the 21st century by defining advantages, limitations, and developmental needs.
Toxicity testing in the 21st century: using the new toxicity testing paradigm to create a taxonomy of adverse effects.
TLDR
In this commentary, a framework for defining adverse effects is proposed for the emerging paradigm of toxicity testing in the 21st century-a paradigm that focuses on human cells, in vitro approaches, toxicity pathways, and high-throughput techniques.
Calling on Science: Making “Alternatives” the New Gold Standard
TLDR
Some of the scientific challenges required to make this vision of toxicity testing to an in vitro platform a reality are focused on, including characteristics of assay design, prospects for mapping and modeling toxicity pathways, assay validation, and biokinetic modeling.
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