Toxicity, metabolism, and impact of mycotoxins on humans and animals.

@article{Hussein2001ToxicityMA,
  title={Toxicity, metabolism, and impact of mycotoxins on humans and animals.},
  author={Hussein Salih Hussein and J M Brasel},
  journal={Toxicology},
  year={2001},
  volume={167 2},
  pages={
          101-34
        }
}
Impact of mycotoxins on humans and animals
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This review will focus on information about primary mycotoxins, their occurrence, related regulations, prevention and methods of detection within the light of the current literature.
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The objective of this review was identifying mycotoxins in livestock feeds and effects on livestock as well human health. Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by wide range of fungi
Prevalence of Mycotoxins and Their Consequences on Human Health
TLDR
Clear evidence of mycotoxin contamination is present in Africa, and it was recommended that adequate prevention and control of these toxic substances in the food system should be encouraged and that appropriate measures must be taken to ensure food safety as well as the enhanced or long-lifespan of the African populace.
Global Impact of Mycotoxins on Human and Animal Health Management
Some fungi are capable of producing substances that are potent, acute toxins or carcinogens to both animals and humans. These toxic agents are generally called mycotoxins. The diseases these fungi
Effects of mycotoxin-contaminated feed on farm animals.
Strategies to Prevent Mycotoxin Contamination of Food and Animal Feed: A Review
TLDR
Various control strategies to prevent the growth of mycotoxigenic fungi as well as to inhibit mycotoxin biosynthesis including pre-harvest (resistance varieties, field management and the use of biological and chemical agents), harvest management, and post-Harvest (improving of drying and storage conditions, theUse of natural and chemicalagents, and irradiation) applications are reviewed.
Occurrence, Toxicity, and Analysis of Major Mycotoxins in Food
TLDR
Six mycotoxins are regularly found in food, posing unpredictable and ongoing food safety problems worldwide, and the toxicity of the six, foods commonly contaminated by one or more of them are summarized.
Occurrence and Decontamination of Mycotoxins in Swine Feed
TLDR
The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the major mycotoxin contaminants in grains, to describe methods of analysis and prevention to reduce mycotoxicoses in swine and other animals, and finally to discuss how mycotoxins directly affect swine production.
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References

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A Review of the Effects of Molds and Mycotoxins in Ruminants
TLDR
A simplified action chart has been devised to suggest management alternatives when molds or mycotoxins are suspected and ruminants and chickens are quite tolerant to deoxynivalenol, apparently due to gastrointestinal microbial activity.
Mycotoxins and reproduction in domestic livestock.
TLDR
Five major mycotoxins that impair growth and reproductive efficiency in North America are aflatoxins, zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin, and ergot.
Mycotoxins and Animal Foods
TLDR
This work focuses on the study of the effects of Mycotoxins on the immune system of Laboratory Animals and the World Animal Feed Industry, as well as its applications in Raw Materials and Animal Feeds.
Mycotoxins: their implications for human and animal health.
TLDR
The involvement of certain mycotoxins such as aflatoxin, ochratoxins and fumonisins in the etiology of human cancers have obtained particular attention, which implies that recent research activities concentrate on mechanistic aspects of mycotoxin-induced pathologies, rather than compiling analytical measures ofMycotoxin concentrations in food and feeds.
Mycotoxin interactions in poultry and swine.
TLDR
Of the mycotoxin combinations that have been investigated in poultry and swine, the aflatoxin + ochratoxin A and aflat toxin + T-2 toxin interactions appear to be the most toxic.
Fumonisin Mycotoxins: Their Origin and Effects on Livestock11Supported in part by USDA Animal Health Formula Funding. Reviewed by D. W. Cassard and T. W. White. Sponsored by R. Bates
TLDR
The chronic effects of fumonisins in pigs include hyperkeratosis of the distal esophagus and nodular hyperplasia of the liver, and more research is needed to investigate the effects on aspects such as feed intake and rate of weight gain in pigs.
Toxic effects of mycotoxins in humans.
TLDR
Epidemiological, clinical and histological findings (when available) in outbreaks of mycotoxicoses resulting from exposure to aflatoxins, ergot, trichothecenes, ochratoxin, 3-nitropropionic acid, zearalenone and fumonisins are discussed.
Fumonisin toxicosis in domestic animals: a review.
TLDR
The toxicodynamics (mechanism of action) of fumonisins appears to be a blockage in the synthesis of sphingolipids and thus constitute a unique toxicological action among the known mycotoxins.
Mycotoxins in foods and feeds in the United States.
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    Journal of animal science
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TLDR
A review of the surveillance data obtained on deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, ochratoxin A, sterigmatocystin, penicillic acid, and patulin over the years indicated that no regulatory actions were warranted and the lack of sufficient surveillance data on other mycotoxins that occur in the United States can be attributed in part to the unavailability of reliable analytical methodology.
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