Toxic potential of palytoxin

  title={Toxic potential of palytoxin},
  author={Jiř{\'i} Pato{\vc}ka and Ramesh C. Gupta and Qinghua Wu and Kamil Ku{\vc}a},
  journal={Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology [Medical Sciences]},
SummaryThis review briefly describes the origin, chemistry, molecular mechanism of action, pharmacology, toxicology, and ecotoxicology of palytoxin and its analogues. Palytoxin and its analogues are produced by marine dinoflagellates. Palytoxin is also produced by Zoanthids (i.e. Palythoa), and Cyanobacteria (Trichodesmium). Palytoxin is a very large, non-proteinaceous molecule with a complex chemical structure having both lipophilic and hydrophilic moieties. Palytoxin is one of the most potent… 

Palytoxin congeners

The pharmacology and toxicology data of palytoxin and its congeners, including their cytotoxicity, human and animal toxicities were summarized and the risk assessment and their control strategies including prevention and treatment assays were evaluated.

Ovatoxin-a, A Palytoxin Analogue Isolated from Ostreopsis cf. ovata Fukuyo: Cytotoxic Activity and ELISA Detection.

Although in vitro OVTX-a appears less toxic than PLTX, its cytotoxicity at nanomolar concentrations after short exposure time rises some concern for human health.

Biotechnological and Pharmacological Applications of Biotoxins and Other Bioactive Molecules from Dinoflagellates

The characteristics of some of the most important biotoxins (and other bioactive substances) produced by dinoflagellates are reviewed, with an emphasis on material published since the latest review available on the subject.

Phytoplankton Toxins and Their Potential Therapeutic Applications: A Journey toward the Quest for Potent Pharmaceuticals

Phytoplankton are prominent organisms that contain numerous bioactive substances and secondary metabolites, including toxins, which can be valuable to pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, and

Marine Neurotoxins: A Double-Edged Sword in Food Industry and Brain Research

The current potent marine neurotoxins and their derivatives based on their latest application in neuron science research are summarized.

Toxic Effects and Tumor Promotion Activity of Marine Phytoplankton Toxins: A Review

Phytoplankton are photosynthetic microorganisms in aquatic environments that produce many bioactive substances. However, some of them are toxic to aquatic organisms via filter-feeding and are even

Coral Keratitis: Case Report and Review of Mechanisms of Action, Clinical Management and Prognosis of Ocular Exposure to Palytoxin

A case of systemic toxicity from inhalation and ocular exposure to presumed palytoxin on a zoanthid coral which resulted in an intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and corneal perforation which required a cornea transplant is discussed.

Paralytic shellfish poisoning and palytoxin poisoning in dogs

Cases of PSP are episodic and not common in dogs, and cases of palytoxin exposure are reportedly increasing in humans, and there is presumably also an increased risk to pets.



Marine toxins and the cytoskeleton: a new view of palytoxin toxicity

The goal of the present minireview is to compile the findings reported to date about how palytoxin and analogs are able to modify the actin cytoskeleton within different cellular models and what signaling mechanisms could be involved in the modulation of cytoskeletal dynamics by palyToxin.

Palytoxin and Analogs: Biological and Ecological Effects

The current knowledge on the effects of PTX and its analogs on different organisms is reviewed, exposing the impact that these toxins may have in coastal ecosystems.

Structure of palytoxin.

  • R. Moore
  • Environmental Science
    Fortschritte der Chemie organischer Naturstoffe = Progress in the chemistry of organic natural products. Progres dans la chimie des substances organiques naturelles
  • 1985
Palytoxin is an extremely poisonous substance associated with marine coelenterates (zoanthids) of the genus Palythoa that was probably noticed for the first time by the Hawaiians who used exudates of a rare, but very toxic species, P. toxica, to poison spear tips for warfare.

Palytoxin acts through Na+,K+-ATPase.

  • E. Habermann
  • Biology, Chemistry
    Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology
  • 1989

Palytoxins: biological and chemical determination.

  • P. RiobóJ. Franco
  • Chemistry, Biology
    Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology
  • 2011

Toxicity of palytoxin after repeated oral exposure in mice and in vitro effects on cardiomyocytes.

The mechanism of action and treatment of palytoxin poisoning.

Palytoxin and an Ostreopsis Toxin Extract Increase the Levels of mRNAs Encoding Inflammation-Related Proteins in Human Macrophages via p38 MAPK and NF-κB

The identification of specific molecular targets of palytoxin and its Ostreopsis analogues, besides contributing to expand the still limited knowledge of the intracellular signalling cascades affected by these toxins, may have important implications in setting up focused pharmacological interventions, replacing currently used symptomatic treatments.

The cytoskeleton, a structure that is susceptible to the toxic mechanism activated by palytoxins in human excitable cells

Investigation of the modifications of ion fluxes associated with palytoxin and ostreocin‐D activities, and their effects on an essential cytoskeletal component, the actin system found that the substantial loss of filamentous actin, and the morphologic alterations elicited by both toxins, are possibly secondary to their action on ion channels.