Toxic effects, bioconcentration and depuration of verapamil in the early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

@article{Steinbach2013ToxicEB,
  title={Toxic effects, bioconcentration and depuration of verapamil in the early life stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).},
  author={Christoph Steinbach and Ganna Fedorova and Miroslav Proke{\vs} and Kateřina Grabicov{\'a} and Jana Machova and Roman Grabic and Olga Valentov{\'a} and Hana Kocour Kroupov{\'a}},
  journal={The Science of the total environment},
  year={2013},
  volume={461-462},
  pages={198-206}
}
Verapamil is a pharmaceutical that belongs to a group of calcium channel blockers and is mainly used as a treatment of angina pectoris and arterial hypertension. Verapamil has been detected in aquatic environments in concentrations ranging from ng L(-1) to μg L(-1). In the present study, a series of acute toxicity tests of verapamil on various developmental stages of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were conducted. As a result, 96hLC50 values of verapamil were estimated at 16.4±9.2, 7.3±1.5 and 4… CONTINUE READING
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