This paper describes the toxic effects of chloromycetin on the motor neurons of the Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) with horse radish peroxidase (HRP) as the labeling enzyme. When chloromycetin was administered orally at 2.5 mg/kg (body weight)/day for 3 days, Chinese tree shrews showed evidence of neurotoxicity. This included damage in cortical motor neuron synapses ending on neurons of the red nucleus and the ultrastructural changes in the mitochondria such as swelling of these organelles and blurring of their cristae. There was an increase of the mitochondrial matrix density and of the thickness of the synaptic membranes. These observations indicate that chloromycetin can lead to ultrastructural change of terminals of the cortical motor axons, and that Chinese tree shrews are sensitive animal model for chloromycetin neurotoxicity.