Toxic Speech: Toward an Epidemiology of Discursive Harm

@article{Tirrell2017ToxicST,
  title={Toxic Speech: Toward an Epidemiology of Discursive Harm},
  author={Lynne Tirrell},
  journal={Philosophical Topics},
  year={2017},
  volume={45},
  pages={139 - 161}
}
  • Lynne Tirrell
  • Published 5 October 2017
  • Sociology
  • Philosophical Topics
ABSTRACT:Applying a medical conception of toxicity to speech practices, this paper calls for an epidemiology of discursive toxicity. Toxicity highlights the mechanisms by which speech acts and discursive practices can inflict harm, making sense of claims about harms arising from speech devoid of slurs, epithets, or a narrower class I call 'deeply derogatory terms.' Further, it highlights the role of uptake and susceptibility, and so suggests a framework for thinking about damage variation… 
Discursive Epidemiology: Two Models
  • Lynne Tirrell
  • Medicine
    Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume
  • 2021
TLDR
This paper explores what the authors can learn from two epidemiological models: a common source model that emphasizes poisons, and a propagated transmission model that better fits contagions like viruses.
The Language of Mental Illness
Battles over how to use our language are fought over all kinds of terms, but often in scattered skirmishes across a wide range of social platforms and contexts, and so are difficult to trace. But
The Telegram Chronicles of Online Harm
TLDR
An extended taxonomy of potentially harmful language is created that includes not only hate speech and direct insults (which have been the focus of existing computational methods), but also other forms of harmful speech discussed in the literature.
Toxic Misogyny and the Limits of Counterspeech
Gender equality, across all the ways that we humans are engendered, is an unrealized ideal of many contemporary Americans. It is not enshrined in the U.S. Constitution, unless one interprets “men” to
I Wrote this Paper for the Lulz: the Ethics of Internet Trolling
Over the last decade, research on derogatory communication has focused on ordinary speech contexts and the use of conventional pejoratives, like slurs. However, the use of social media has given rise
Toward a Legal Harm Principle: Constructing and Applying a Legal Principle from John Stuart Mill's General Harm Principle
My goal in this work is to outline a specifically legal harm principle that is derived from John Stuart Mill’s harm principle in On Liberty. I will do this by providing a close reading of On Liberty
The language of suppression: Muslims, migrant workers, and India's response to COVID-19
TLDR
The language of India's response to COVID-19 surrounding three major events that occurred in the early months of the pandemic are studied, showing how forms of linguistic trickery were used to suppress, harm, and marginalize two minority groups: Muslims and migrant workers.
LA SUBORDINACIÓN DE LAS MUJERES Y SU DERECHO DE RESISTENCIA A SUBORDINAÇÃO DAS MULHERES E SEU DIREITO DE RESISTIR
This essay seeks to combine Frèdéric Gros’ concept of subordination, presented in Disobey: The philosophy of Resistance, with the theory of women’s subordination proposed by feminist philosophers
Uncivil Disobedience: Beyond the Orthodox View of Resistance and Counter-Resistance
What I call the Orthodox View of resistance and counter-resistance holds that at least in reasonably just societies a) political resistance is sometimes justified and b) the state and other citizens
UNDERSTANDING INDIA AS A COMMUNITY IN THE TIMES OF COVID-19
In these hard times, when the world is plunged into the nightmare of COVID – 19, it has become important for the research fields, across the globe, to understand its different impacts and future
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 69 REFERENCES
Radical Hope: Ethics in the Face of Cultural Devastation
Shortly before he died, Plenty Coups, the last great Chief of the Crow Nation, told his story - up to a certain point. "When the buffalo went away the hearts of my people fell to the ground," he
Hate Speech Law: A Philosophical Examination
Alexander Brown writes as an inter-disciplinary scholar at the intersections of law, ethics, philosophy, and politics. With Hate Speech Law: A Philosophical Examination he justly claims to have
Speech and Harm
In what became perhaps the most oft-quoted sentence in the First Amendment jurisprudence of the United States, Justice Stevens observed that “few of us would march our sons and daughters off to war
Poverty, Agency, and Human Rights
Introduction, Diana Tietjens Meyers Part 1: Thinking through the Meanings of Poverty 1. Surviving Poverty, Claudia Card 2. Poverty Knowledge, Coercion, and Social Rights: A Discourse Ethical
Studies in the Way of Words.
This volume, Grice's first hook, includes the long-delayed publication of his enormously influential 1967 William James Lectures. But there is much, much more in this work. Paul Grice himself has
Logic and Conversation
As Grice’s enthusiasm for ordinary language philosophy became increasingly qualified during the 1950s, his interest was growing in the rather different styles of philosophy of language then current
Some Reflections on Language Games
1. It seems plausible to say that a language is a system of expressions the use of which is subject to certain rules. It would seem, thus, that learning to use a language is learning to obey the
The Language of the Third Reich
  • Jörg Riecke
  • History
    Inference: International Review of Science
  • 2019
The philologist and diarist Victor Klemperer documented the perversion of the German language under the Nazis in his Lingua Tertii Imperii. The book is not just a chilling account of the Nazi
Countering Dangerous Speech: New Ideas for Genocide Prevention
This paper outlines new preventive strategies for responding to inflammatory speech, especially in societies at risk of mass violence, and describes how they are being employed in the field.
Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine
The 11th edition of Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine welcomes Anthony Fauci to its editorial staff, in addition to more than 85 new contributors. While the organization of the book is
...
...