Toxic Prey and Predator Avoidance: Responses of Toxic Newts to Chemical Stimuli from a Predator and Injured Conspecifics

@inproceedings{Gall2011ToxicPA,
  title={Toxic Prey and Predator Avoidance: Responses of Toxic Newts to Chemical Stimuli from a Predator and Injured Conspecifics},
  author={Brian G. Gall and Abigail A. Farr and S G Engel and Edmund D. Brodie},
  year={2011}
}
Abstract Predator avoidance behavior minimizes predation risk because the prey never enters the perceptual field of the predator. For toxic species, avoiding potential predators indiscriminately is unlikely to be the best predator avoidance strategy because many predators will be incapable of consuming the toxin. We investigated the role of chemical-based avoidance behavior in predator-prey interactions between a toxic prey species, the Rough-skinned Newt (Taricha granulosa), and its major… 
Predator Avoidance in Lab-Reared Juvenile Rough-Skinned Newts, Taricha granulosa
TLDR
Results suggest that predator avoidance in Taricha granulosa is innate, and the avoidance of a wider range of stimuli by juvenile newts is likely an effective strategy at reducing predation risk given their small size and lower tetrodotoxin concentrations (compared to adults), both of which render them vulnerable to predation by gartersnakes.
Only fear the fatal foe: predation risk assessment by eastern newts (Notophthalmus viridescens) in response to common snapping turtles and other potential predators
TLDR
The results of these experiments indicate newts rely on predator-avoidance behavior to reduce the probability of being consumed by snapping turtles, but do not reduce activity in response to other potential predators that may only consume them rarely.
Larval newts adjust foraging rate to perceived predator and competitor proximity
TLDR
Results prove that larval newts adjust foraging rates to perceived predator and competitor proximity, and suggest a trade-off between the benefits of improved energetic status or accelerated metamorphosis and the costs of increased food ingestion.
CADDISFLY LARVAE (LIMNEPHILIDAE) AS PREDATORS OF NEWT (TARICHA GRANULOSA) EGGS: ANOTHER PLAYER IN THE COEVOLUTIONARY ARMS RACE REVOLVING AROUND TETRODOTOXIN?
TLDR
Results suggest that despite previous assumptions, substantial quantities of TTX, originally deposited in the embryo, are retained by the developing larvae and metamorphosed juveniles and this quantity is enough to make them unpalatable to some potential predators.

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