Towering Figures in American Mathematics, 1890–1950

@article{Zitarelli2001ToweringFI,
  title={Towering Figures in American Mathematics, 1890–1950},
  author={David E. Zitarelli},
  journal={The American Mathematical Monthly},
  year={2001},
  volume={108},
  pages={606 - 635}
}
The state of American mathematics in the year 1890 was quite bleak. Only two schools offered true graduate education, The Johns Hopkins University and Clark University. Both were new, Hopkins having been founded in 1876 and Clark in 1889. When compared to their counterparts in Europe, the courses taught at the vast majority of American universities were paltry, the spirit of research almost nonexistent, and the quality of the faculty vastly inferior. Most established universities and colleges… 
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