Towards responsible use of cognitive-enhancing drugs by the healthy

  title={Towards responsible use of cognitive-enhancing drugs by the healthy},
  author={Henry T. Greely and Barbara Jacquelyn Sahakian and John Harris and Ronald C. Kessler and Michael S. Gazzaniga and Philip Campbell and Martha J. Farah},
Society must respond to the growing demand for cognitive enhancement. That response must start by rejecting the idea that 'enhancement' is a dirty word, argue Henry Greely and colleagues. 
Some First Steps Toward Responsible Use of Cognitive-Enhancing Drugs by the Healthy
  • H. Greely
  • Biology
    The American journal of bioethics : AJOB
  • 2013
An effectively risk-free enhancer that targets generalpurpose capacities should be nomore controversial than the teaching of logic or general reasoning skills, and when, and if, this occurs, it may be appropriate to require parents to enhance their children.
Cognitive Enhancement and the Problem of the Pressure to Enhance: Rational Choice Modeling and Normative Justification
  • Veljko Dubljević
  • Psychology
    The International Library of Ethics, Law and Technology
  • 2019
The problem of regulating cognitive neuroenhancement for healthy adults has generated considerable interest.
Cognitive Enhancement: Promises and Perils
Begging Important Questions About Cognitive Enhancement, Again
A survey of the attitudes and self-reported behavior of physicians in prescribing enhancement pharmaceuticals is timely, given bioethicists’ calls for professional organizations to formulate guidel...
Making sense of pharmaceutical cognitive enhancement: taking stock and looking forward
In this special issue of Drugs: education, prevention and policy, we bring together qualitative research drawing on theoretical frameworks from diverse bodies of literature in anthropology, sociolo...
Distinguishing between restoration and enhancement in neuropharmacology.
Because regulatory approval of cognitive enhancement drugs is likely, physicians may want to consider whether they would condone the practice for restoration of function only or for enhancement
Expectations regarding cognitive enhancement create substantial challenges
Why concerns regarding efficacy and safety, demands on resources, and public health are substantive enough to warrant serious reconsideration before pharmaceutical performance enhancement can be widely supported is highlighted.
Navigating the enhancement landscape
Research into the efficacy and safety of cognitive enhancers for recreational or lifestyle use has not been done. Should society pay for studies that might improve the lives of already healthy people?
Cognition-Enhancing Drugs: Can We Say No?
Normative analysis of cognition-enhancing drugs frequently weighs the liberty interests of drug users against egalitarian values. Yet those who would refuse to engage in neuroenhancement may well
Dopamine and the cost of aging
A study finds that the dopamine-boosting drug L-DOPA changes value representation in the brain and improves reinforcement learning in older individuals.


Poll results: look who's doping
Large-scale use and a mix of attitudes towards the drugs are found in the results of an informal survey into readers' use of cognition-enhancing drugs.
The run on Ritalin. Attention deficit disorder and stimulant treatment in the 1990s.
  • L. Diller
  • Psychology, Medicine
    The Hastings Center report
  • 1996
Ritalin use has increased by 500 percent in the last five years, and the reasons are rooted in changes and pressures in psychiatry and society at large.
Professor's little helper
The use of cognitive-enhancing drugs by both ill and healthy individuals raises ethical questions that should not be ignored, argue Barbara Sahakian and Sharon Morein-Zamir. The idea that a drug or
The mental wealth of nations
Countries must learn how to capitalize on their citizens' cognitive resources if they are to prosper, both economically and socially, according to the World Bank.
Neurocognitive enhancement: what can we do and what should we do?
The goal is to review the state of the art in neurocognitive enhancement, its attendant social and ethical problems, and the ways in which society can address these problems.
Cholinergic enhancement of episodic memory in healthy young adults
This region appears to be the major target of cholinergic enhancement in healthy subjects due to long-term inhibition of AchE, and time-by-group interactions demonstrated significant drug effects that were specific to episodic memory in both the verbal and visual domain.
Cognitive enhancing effects of modafinil in healthy volunteers
Data indicate that modafinil selectively improves neuropsychological task performance, suggesting that modAFinil may be of benefit in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Ampakines and the threefold path to cognitive enhancement
Neuroplasticity: Changes in grey matter induced by training
This discovery of a stimulus-dependent alteration in the brain's macroscopic structure contradicts the traditionally held view that cortical plasticity is associated with functional rather than anatomical changes.
Be smart, exercise your heart: exercise effects on brain and cognition
A growing number of studies support the idea that physical exercise is a lifestyle factor that might lead to increased physical and mental health throughout life, at the molecular, cellular, systems and behavioural levels.