Label-free biosensing using a photonic crystal structure in a total-internal-reflection geometry.
The use of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors is increasingly popular in fundamental biological studies, health science research, drug discovery, clinical diagnosis, and environmental and agricultural monitoring. SPR allows for the qualitative and quantitative measurements of biomolecular interactions in real-time without requiring a labeling procedure. Today, the development of SPR is geared toward the design of compact, low-cost, and sensitive biosensors. Rapid advances in micro-fabrication technology have made available integratable opto-electronic components suitable for SPR. This review paper focuses on the progress made over the past 4 years toward this integration. Readers will find the descriptions of novel SPR optical approaches and materials. Nano-technology is also increasingly used in the design of biologically optimized and optically enhanced surfaces for SPR. Much of this work is leading to the integration of sensitive SPR to lab-on-a-chip platforms.