Towards a History of Mass Violence in the Etat Indépendant du Congo, 1885–1908

  title={Towards a History of Mass Violence in the Etat Ind{\'e}pendant du Congo, 1885–1908},
  author={Aldwin Roes},
  journal={South African Historical Journal},
  pages={634 - 670}
  • A. Roes
  • Published 1 December 2010
  • Political Science
  • South African Historical Journal
ABSTRACT The present article provides an up-to-date scholarly introduction to mass violence in the Etat Indépendant du Congo (Congo Free State, EIC). Its aims are twofold: to offer a point of access to the extensive literature and historical debates on the subject, and to make the case for exchanging the currently prevalent top-down narrative, with its excessive focus on King Leopold's character and motives, for one which considers the EIC's culture of violence as a multicausal, broadly based… 

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