Towards a History of Mass Violence in the Etat Indépendant du Congo, 1885–1908

  title={Towards a History of Mass Violence in the Etat Ind{\'e}pendant du Congo, 1885–1908},
  author={A. Roes},
  journal={South African Historical Journal},
  pages={634 - 670}
  • A. Roes
  • Published 2010
  • Sociology
  • South African Historical Journal
ABSTRACT The present article provides an up-to-date scholarly introduction to mass violence in the Etat Indépendant du Congo (Congo Free State, EIC). Its aims are twofold: to offer a point of access to the extensive literature and historical debates on the subject, and to make the case for exchanging the currently prevalent top-down narrative, with its excessive focus on King Leopold's character and motives, for one which considers the EIC's culture of violence as a multicausal, broadly based… Expand
Sexual violence in the congo free state: Archival traces and present reconfigurations
Western imaginings and colonially scripted images of the Congo as barbaric, savage and the Heart of Darkness have dominated understandings of events in the DRC since its colonial inception (DunnExpand
Talking politics and watching the border in Northern Burundi, c.1960-1972
This is the history of a turbulent borderland in a time of transition. Colonialism redefined the meaning of borders in Burundi, and in the traumatic shift from colonial rule to Independence it becameExpand
‘Still so many illusions to cast off!’: The territorial unification of the Ngbaka (Belgian Congo) in the 1920s
ABSTRACT In the 1920s, the Belgian colonial government appointed a territorial administrator named René Pecheur, a former missionary, to organise the territorial unification of what was conceived asExpand
'The Black Knights of Fortune': A Study of the Zappo-Zap and Euro-African Encounters in the Late Nineteenth-Century Kasai
Recent popular publications have emphasised the brutality and suffering inflicted upon African communities at the onset of colonialism in the Congo, under the Belgium King Leopold II. Yet thisExpand
Ethnogovernmentality: The making of ethnic territories and subjects in Eastern DR Congo
Abstract In this article I investigate colonial constructions of ethnicity and territory and their effects in the post-independence period in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. The coreExpand
Legacies of an imperial past in a small nation. Patterns of postcolonialism in Belgium
ABSTRACT Oblivion and recognition are equally important components in the public use of history. In dealing with their contentious past, many countries have gone through a cycle of denial,Expand
State Extraction and Anti-Colonial Rebellion – Quantitative Evidence from the Former German East Africa
Does extraction increase the likelihood of antistate violence in the early phases of state-building processes? While much research has focused on the impacts of war on state-building, the potentialExpand
The Halting Development of Catholic Power in Kongolo, 1891–1917
The Church came to Kongolo more as a conquering power than a civic institution. Having established themselves in Mpala and Baudouinville, the White Fathers founded an out-station in Sola, easternExpand
Introduction: Church and State in Southeastern Congo
Scholars such as Crawford Young and Jean-Pacifique Balaamo Mokelwa have argued that the Church was an integral part of the trinity of powers involved in the Belgian colonization of the Congo.Expand
From the Amazon to the Congo Valley: A Comparative Study on the Violent Commodification of Labour During the Rubber Boom (1870s–1910s)
This chapter presents a comparative historical analysis of the process of labour commodification during the rubber boom period in Western Amazonia and the Congo Free State. Its primary objective isExpand


Extremely violent societies: an alternative to the concept of genocide
The past 15 years have seen an avalanche of research about mass violence and “genocide.” This is not only true for the three topics which will play a role in this article: Nazi Germany, the SovietExpand
A Colonial Lexicon: Of Birth Ritual, Medicalization, and Mobility in the Congo
A Colonial Lexicon is the first historical investigation of how childbirth became medicalized in Africa. Rejecting the “colonial encounter” paradigm pervasive in current studies, Nancy Rose HuntExpand
A Church in Search of a State: Catholic Missions in Eastern Zaïre, 1879–1930
The Belgian Congo is commonly cited as an example of an extremely close association of church and state in colonial Africa. The Catholic mission there, despite active competition from ProtestantExpand
Stanley: The Impossible Life of Africa's Greatest Explorer
Henry Morton Stanley, so the tale goes, was a cruel imperialist - a bad man of Africa - who connived with King Leopold II of Belgium in horrific crimes against the people of the Congo. He alsoExpand
Naming Colonialism: History and Collective Memory in the Congo, 1870–1960
What's in a name? As Osumaka Likaka argues in this illuminating study, the names that Congolese villagers gave to European colonizers reveal much about how Africans experienced and reacted toExpand
European Atrocity, African Catastrophe: Leopold II, the Congo Free State and its Aftermath
Introduction Part I. Antecedents, Belgium and Africa 1. Belgium, the Coburgs and the Search for Colonies 2. Europe and Africa Part II. Foundations 3. Cameron's Journey Across Africa 4. The BrusselsExpand
Snap of the Whip/Crossroads of Shame: Flogging, Photography, and the Representation of Atrocity in the Congo Reform Campaign
This article examines the recurrent iconography of the black body under the whip, and its ambivalent reception among British evangelical Christians during the colonial era. Flogging images have oftenExpand
Roger Casement and the Congo
Roger Casement's role as Irish patriot has obscured his role as Congo reformer. Travelling in the interior of the Congo in 1903 as British consul, Casement gathered evidence that enabled the BritishExpand
Presbyterian Reformers in Central Africa: A Documentary Account of the American Presbyterian Congo Mission and the Human Rights Struggle in the Congo, 1890-1918
This volume contains 123 documents which illustrate the early history of the American Presbyterian Congo Mission and its struggle for human rights in the Congo from 1890-1918. The documents, many ofExpand
Genocide in the Age of the Nation State, Vol. 2: The Rise of the West and the Coming of Genocide
Most books on genocide consider it primarily as a twentieth-century phenomenon. In "The Rise of the West and the Coming of Genocide", Levene argues that this approach fails to grasp its true origins.Expand