Towards a Hierarchical Definition of Life, the Organism, and Death

@article{JagersopAkkerhuis2010TowardsAH,
  title={Towards a Hierarchical Definition of Life, the Organism, and Death},
  author={Gerard Jagers op Akkerhuis},
  journal={Foundations of Science},
  year={2010},
  volume={15},
  pages={245-262}
}
Despite hundreds of definitions, no consensus exists on a definition of life or on the closely related and problematic definitions of the organism and death. These problems retard practical and theoretical development in, for example, exobiology, artificial life, biology and evolution. This paper suggests improving this situation by basing definitions on a theory of a generalized particle hierarchy. This theory uses the common denominator of the “operator” for a unified ranking of both… 
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