Toward understanding respiratory sinus arrhythmia: Relations to cardiac vagal tone, evolution and biobehavioral functions

@article{Grossman2007TowardUR,
  title={Toward understanding respiratory sinus arrhythmia: Relations to cardiac vagal tone, evolution and biobehavioral functions},
  author={Paul Grossman and Edwin W. Taylor},
  journal={Biological Psychology},
  year={2007},
  volume={74},
  pages={263-285}
}
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Heart-Rate Variability—More than Heart Beats?
  • G. Ernst
  • Biology
    Front. Public Health
  • 2017
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Heart-rate variability is usually seen as associated with a good health condition, whereas lowered variability might signify pathological changes, which might explain why lower HRV parameters were related to decreased life expectancy in several studies.
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An historical overview of the evolution in the concept of HRV is provided and a brief description of time domain, frequency domain, and non-linear dynamic analysis techniques (and their limitations) that are commonly used to measure HRV are described.
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References

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Respiratory sinus arrhythmia, cardiac vagal tone, and respiration: within- and between-individual relations.
TLDR
Resting RSA does not accurately predict individual differences in cardiac vagal tone, but RSA and heart period together do predict such individual differences reasonably well, and the relationship between individual variations in RSA and vagaltone is not improved by controlling respiratory parameters.
Prediction of tonic parasympathetic cardiac control using respiratory sinus arrhythmia: the need for respiratory control.
TLDR
Analysis of intraindividual relationships among RSA magnitude, respiration, and heart period among six healthy male adults after intravenous administration of 10 mg propranolol, a beta-adrenergic blocker points to the importance of controlling for respiratory parameters when using respiratory sinus arrhythmia as a cardiac vagal index.
Sympathetic restraint of respiratory sinus arrhythmia: implications for vagal-cardiac tone assessment in humans.
Clinicians and experimentalists routinely estimate vagal-cardiac nerve traffic from respiratory sinus arrhythmia. However, evidence suggests that sympathetic mechanisms may also modulate respiratory
Paced respiratory sinus arrhythmia as an index of cardiac parasympathetic tone during varying behavioral tasks.
TLDR
Results indicated that respiratory sinus arrhythmia, under controlled respiratory conditions, is uninfluenced by variations in sympathetic activity, and provides a reasonably sensitive index of cardiac vagal tone, even when alterations in parasympathetic tone are not large.
Improving estimation of cardiac vagal tone during spontaneous breathing using a paced breathing calibration.
TLDR
This study demonstrates a novel procedure for computing a respiratory unrelated RSA index and tested an adjustment method using transfer function analysis and paced breathing at 3 different respiratory frequencies as the basis for regressing out respiratory related RSA changes in a task where breathing was not controlled.
Respiratory sinus arrhythmia, cardiac vagal control, and daily activity.
TLDR
Ambulatory respiratory sinus arrhythmia magnitude is associated with respiratory variations and physical activity and concurrent monitoring of respiration andPhysical activity may enhance HR variability accuracy to predict autonomic control.
Relationship between pulse interval and respiratory sinus arrhythmia: a time- and frequency-domain analysis of the effects of atropine
TLDR
The comparative percentage fluctuations of RSA and PI over this large vagal tone range indicate that RSA is more sensitive (about twofold) than PI in reflecting fluctuations around the set point.
Respiratory sinus arrhythmia: why does the heartbeat synchronize with respiratory rhythm?
TLDR
RSA or heart rate variability in synchrony with respiration is a biological phenomenon, which may have a positive influence on gas exchange at the level of the lung via efficient ventilation/perfusion matching and evidence has accumulated of a possible dissociation between RSA and vagal control of that heart rate.
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