Toward improving the reliability of clinical acupuncture trials: arguments against the validity of "sham acupuncture" as controls.

  • Denis Ryan
  • Published 1999 in American journal of acupuncture


In refining the design of single-blind acupuncture research trials, "sham acupuncture" has been proposed and used in trials as a useful "inactive" control, yet the degree of inactivity with sham acupuncture points remains largely undetermined. With neural and dermal effects occurring whenever a needle is inserted into the skin, regardless of depth or… (More)


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