Toward an understanding of three control constructs: personal control, self-efficacy, and hardiness.

@article{Bowsher1995TowardAU,
  title={Toward an understanding of three control constructs: personal control, self-efficacy, and hardiness.},
  author={J E Bowsher and D Keep},
  journal={Issues in mental health nursing},
  year={1995},
  volume={16 1},
  pages={33-50}
}
The purpose of this paper is to further the understanding of three control models by describing their origins, definitions, generality, process, antecedents, and consequences. Each is applied to a clinical situation within a case study of a 98-year-old Caucasian woman living in a nursing facility. Similarities and differences among the models are reviewed. Implications for clinical practice and research are presented.