Toward a better definition of the restless legs syndrome

@article{Walters1995TowardAB,
  title={Toward a better definition of the restless legs syndrome},
  author={Arthur S. Walters and Michael S. Aldrich and Richard P. Allen and Sonia Ancoli-Israel and David W. Buchholz and Sudhansu Chokroverty and Giorgio Coccagna and Christopher J. Earley and Bruce L. Ehrenberg and T. G. Feest and W. Hening and Neil Kavey and Gilles Lavigne and Joseph L. Lipinski and Elio Lugaresi and Pasquale Montagna and Jacques Montplaisir and Sarah S. Mosko and Wolfgang Hermann Oertel and Daniel L. Picchietti and Thomas Pollm{\"a}cher and Renata Shafor and Robert C. Smith and Wenche Telstad and Claudia Trenkwalder and Christian von Sch{\'e}ele and Arthur S. Walters and J. Catesby Ware and Marco Zucconi},
  journal={Movement Disorders},
  year={1995},
  volume={10}
}
A large International Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) Study Group has been formed. As its first task, the group has taken upon itself the role of definig the clinical features of the RLS. As minimal criteria for diagnosis, the group proposes the following four features: (a) desire to move the extremities, often associated with paresthesias/dysesthesias; (b) motor restlessness; (c) worsening of symptoms at rest with at least temporary relief by activity, and (d) worsening of symptoms in the evening… 
Restless legs syndrome.
TLDR
A large number of studies have now confirmed that dopamine agonists can also be effective in RLS therapy, and that this treatment seems to involve less risk for augmentation.
Restless Legs Syndrome
TLDR
Treatment of RLS is usually rewarding, most patients respond robustly to dopamine receptor agonists, but over time, response may lessen, or the patients may develop ‘augmentation’, whereby they have a worsening of symptoms, usually in the form of an earlier onset.
Aetiology and Treatment of Restless Legs Syndrome
TLDR
It is suggested that RLS is a disease of the subcortical CNS, with involvement of the brainstem and spinal cord, and levodopa/decarboxylase inhibitors and dopamine agonists are regarded as the treatment of choice for RLS.
[Restless legs syndrome].
TLDR
Dopaminergic stimulation with levodopa or dopamine agonists is the first choice in idiopathic restless legs syndrome, but the long-term adverse effect of augmentation should be carefully monitored.
Restless legs syndrome: pathophysiology and clinical aspects
TLDR
Apart from secondary cases related to neurological or medical diseases, the restless legs syndrome is a primary and idiopathic disorder showing a high rate of familiarity and implying a deficient dopaminergic transmission at spinal level and/or basal ganglia with a selective impairment of D2 receptors.
[Restless legs syndrome from the perspective of psychiatry].
TLDR
Doctors should be aware of the syndrome since many drugs used by them such as antipsychotics, antidepressants and anxiolytics can worsen the symptoms and the syndrome may be associated with depressive and anxiety diseases.
Restless legs syndrome: diagnosis, epidemiology, classification and consequences
TLDR
Higher awareness of RLS among physicians is required; it remains an underdiagnosed clinical condition.
Restless legs syndrome: a clinical update.
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common and often disabling sensorimotor disorder. Epidemiologic studies suggest that RLS is an underrecognized and undertreated disorder affecting both children and
Restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder in the elderly.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 95 REFERENCES
Restless legs syndrome
TLDR
Restless legs syndrome is a common cause of insomnia related to problems with sleep initiation and sleep maintenance, unrefreshing sleep, and excessive daytime sleepiness, and it may signify an underlying medical condition.
Variable expressivity in familial restless legs syndrome.
TLDR
It is concluded that there can be variable expressivity of the clinical features in familial restless legs syndrome and that there are probably some relatively nonrestless patients with prominent periodic movements in sleep who are carriers of the restless legs Syndrome gene.
Evidence of peripheral axonal neuropathy in primary restless legs syndrome
TLDR
Extended peripheral nerve investigation in eight consecutive pRLS patients with normal neurological examination results showed that all patients exhibited two or more electrical, psychophysiological, and/or morphological features of peripheral axonal neuropathy.
THE SYMPTOM OF RESTLESS LEGS
BY A SERIES of publications 1-9 beginning in 1944, Ekbom has revived interest in "the syndrome of restless legs" which, although first described in 1685, 10 had been almost completely neglected in
Dopaminergic agents in restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movements of sleep: response and complications of extended treatment in 49 cases.
TLDR
The dopamine agonists L-dopa/carbidopa, bromocriptine mesylate or both were initiated in 49 patients with RLS/PLMS who sought consultation at a sleep disorders center and the > 70% long-term response is comparable to other studies in the literature.
Dopaminergic treatment of restless legs and rebound phenomenon
TLDR
Patients who have been seen for a complaint of RLS occurring only during the nocturnal hours and disturbing sleep are studied, finding that some patients develop a new complaint of significant RLS in the morning hours after awakening, which appears to be a rebound phenomenon associated with morning drug withdrawal.
Restless Legs Syndrome Treatment with Dopaminergic Drugs
TLDR
These dopaminergic drugs decreased the times of waking up and staying awake periods at a statistically significant level (p changed between 0.025 and 0.01, t test) compared with placebo.
Restless legs syndrome in uremic neuropathy
TLDR
The authors' observations of this syndrome in 4 uremic patients with slow nerve conduction and in 1 patient with peripheral neuropathy suggest that in some patients it may be an early sign of peripheral nerve damage.
Sensory and motor components of the restless legs syndrome
TLDR
It is found that many dysesthesias may either closely precede or follow occurrences of EMG-defined leg activity, or both manifestations may occur independently.
...
...