Toward a Procedure for Minimizing and Detecting False Positive Diagnoses of Learning Disability

  title={Toward a Procedure for Minimizing and Detecting False Positive Diagnoses of Learning Disability},
  author={Howard S. Adelman and Bennett A. Lauber and Perry Nelson and Douglas C. Smith},
  journal={Journal of Learning Disabilities},
  pages={234 - 244}
Assessment procedures that can significantly enhance motivation to perform are needed so that poor performance due to low or avoidance motivation is not misdiagnosed as indicating ability deficits or as symptomatic of learning disabilities (LD). In this connection, research is under way to investigate the degree to which a highly motivating computer game learning task can improve differential diagnoses of LD. Findings from the initial investigation indicate that a large proportion of students… 

Tables from this paper

The license plate test performance in Canadian adolescents with learning disabilities: A preliminary study
Preliminary data regarding how children with SLD perform on the newly developed License Plate Test is provided, allowing for development of appropriate cut scores to maximize sensitivity and specificity of this test for use with child and adolescent populations.
An investigation of methods to detect feigned reading disabilities.
The utility of previously proposed symptom validity measures, the Dyslexia Assessment of Simulation or Honesty and the resulting Feigning Index, show promise as a means of detecting noncredible performance in the assessment of RD.
Identifying students feigning dyslexia: preliminary findings and strategies for detection.
It is argued that symptom validity assessment should be included in all higher-education assessments for dyslexia and other specific learning disorders, and some preliminary strategies for detection are suggested.
Automatized Sequences as a Performance Validity Test? Difficult If You Have Never Learned Your ABCs
Accurate identification of symptom exaggeration is essential when determining whether or not data obtained in pediatric evaluations are valid or interpretable. Apart from using freestanding
WISC-IV Unusual Digit Span Performance in a Sample of Adolescents With Learning Disabilities
Results indicate that while RDS is likely insensitive to impairments associated with LD, other DS measures may have an unacceptably high false-positive rate, especially if Canadian normative data are used to calculate scores.
Easier Said Than Done
No agreed upon definition of LD was identified, although core similarities in definitions were noted, and there is a need to adopt a consistent, evidence-based approach to diagnosis of LD in Canada.
Documenting Disabilities in Postsecondary Settings
Weak clinician knowledge is found on certain key issues, including the meaning of functional impairment and understanding of the different laws governing academic accommodation of children versus adults.
Pinpointing Disability Accommodation Needs: What Evidence Is Most Relevant?
The ecological validity of diagnostic test scores' generalizability across time, setting, and dimension of performance is considered, showing that scores from diagnostic cognitive tests do not significantly predict students’ ability to access a realistic test.
Identification of Students with Academic Difficulties: Implications for Research and Practice
Many students with academic difficulties are not identified by schools as needing assistance. The traditional learning disabilities category appears to be less and less suitable given recent
Assessing Validity of Measurement in Learning Disabilities Using Hierarchical Generalized Linear Modeling
  • G. Sideridis
  • Psychology, Education
    Educational and psychological measurement
  • 2016
It is concluded that the difficulty levels of a scale are heavily influenced by situational factors during testing, such as students’ entry levels of motivation and affect.


Diagnostic Classification of LD: A Practical Necessity and a Procedural Problem
Discussion of purposes and problems involved in diagnosing LD focuses on three topics: how diagnosis relates to other assessment activity, the objectives of diagnostic classification, and specific conceptual concerns regarding the LD label.
Impact of Motivation on Task Performance of Children with and without Psychoeducational Problems
Results are interpreted as indicating that brief strategies to enhance motivation can improve performance of problem students, that the effect of any such strategy is directly related to both its potency and the degree to which initial motivation to perform is diminished, and that problem students often may be performing significantly below current capability.
The Learning-Disabilities Test Battery: Empirical and Social Issues
In an extensive review of validation studies on the ten most frequently recommended procedures used for diagnosing learning disabilities, Gerald Coles evaluates the special knowledge claims made by
The Not So Specific Learning Disability Population
An interactional view of factors which determine school success and failure is discussed to relate this model to the heterogeneity which exists in the learning disability population, and procedures for identifying and meeting the remedial needs of major subgroups in theLearning disability population are suggested.
Differential Diagnosis—Prescriptive Teaching: A Critical Appraisal
The dominant instructional model within special education, Differential Diagnosis-Prescriptive Teaching, involves the assessment of psycholinguistic and perceptual motor abilities that are presumed
The Concept of Intrinsic Motivation: Implications for Practice and Research with the Learning Disabled
Many children and youth with learning disabilities manifest behavior problems in addition to various learning disorders. Historically, the major focus in the learning disability field has been on
The Problems of Definition and Differentiation and the Need for a Classification Schema
It is time for the LD field to take a step back from narrow debates over definition and deal with the fundamental problem of developing a comprehensive classification scheme, i.e., one in which LD is differentiated from other categories of learning problems and subtypes are conceived within each category.
Classifying Students by Inferred Motivation to Learn
Motivational factors play a key role in learning disabilities and other school problems, yet the major formal classification schemata tend to ignore such factors. This paper reports on a schema for
Depression in Learning Disabled Children
Comparing the most depressed children with the least depressed, upper versus lower quartiles, revealed that the former were much lower in self-esteem, tended to be oversensitive and shared traits associated with neuroticism.
An introduction to learning disabilities
The following introduction provides general information regarding the causes, symptoms, and definitions of selected learning disabilities prior to attending the Working with W-2 Participants with