Toward a Critical Race Theory of Education

  title={Toward a Critical Race Theory of Education},
  author={Gloria J. Ladson-Billings and William F. Tate},
  journal={Teachers College Record: The Voice of Scholarship in Education},
  pages={47 - 68}
This article asserts that despite the salience of race in U.S. society, as a topic of scholarly inquiry, it remains untheorized. The article argues for a critical race theoretical perspective in education analogous to that of critical race theory in legal scholarship by developing three propositions: (1) race continues to be significant in the United States; (2) U.S. society is based on property rights rather than human rights; and (3) the intersection of race and property creates an analytical… 
The (Racially Neutral) Politics of Education: A Critical Race Theory Perspective
Although Critical Race Theory (CRT) originated in the legal arena, its influence has proliferated throughout the social sciences literature. Yet CRT has not spread significantly into the field of
The evolving role of critical race theory in educational scholarship
In 1994 the legal scholarship movement, critical race theory (CRT), was introduced in education. Since that time, a variety of scholars have taken up CRT as a way to analyze and critique educational
The evolving role of critical race theory in educational scholarship
In 1994 the legal scholarship movement, critical race theory (CRT), was introduced in education. Since that time, a variety of scholars have taken up CRT as a way to analyze and critique educational
Critical Race Theory in Education and Qualitative Inquiry
This introduction presents an overview of the special issue on critical race theory (CRT)/critical race studies (CRS) that appeared in a 2002 issue of Qualitative Inquiry. I then go on to discuss how
Critical Race Theory in Education
This article examines the development of Critical Race Theory (CRT) in education, paying attention to how researchers use CRT (and its branches) in the study of K-12 and higher education. The article
Critical Race Studies in Education: Examining a Decade of Research on U.S. Schools
In this article, the authors critically synthesize how Critical Race Theory (CRT) as an emerging field of inquiry has been used as a tool of critique and analysis in K-12 education research. The
Framing Critical Race Theory and Methodologies
Critical Race Theory (CRT) is now a prominent framework for critical scholarship on race and racism in the field of education. Our goal is to introduce CRT as a formative theoretical and
Toward a Tribal Critical Race Theory in Education
In this article, I outline the central tenets of an emerging theory that I call Tribal Critical Race Theory (TribalCrit) to more completely address the issues of Indigenous Peoples in the United
The Relevance of Critical Race Theory to Educational Theory and Practice
Critical Race Theory (CRT) has its origins in legal analysis but increasingly has been used by educational researchers to analyse the continued salience of institutional racism in educational


Terms of Inclusion: Has Multiculturalism Redefined Equality in American Education?
Equality is conventionally understood to pertain to distributions of resources, rewards, and achievement. Adopting a view of equality that emphasizes hierarchy and belonging, I ask whether or not
Talking About Race, Learning About Racism : The Application of Racial Identity Development Theory in the Classroom
The inclusion of race-related content in college courses often generates emotional responses in students that range from guilt and shame to anger and despair. The discomfort associated with these
Black students' school success: Coping with the “burden of ‘acting white’”
The authors review their previous explanation of black students' underachievement. They now suggest the importance of considering black people's expressive responses to their historical status and
The Silenced Dialogue: Power and Pedagogy in Educating Other People's Children
Lisa Delpit uses the debate over process-oriented versus skills-oriented writing instruction as the starting-off point to examine the "culture of power" that exists in society in general and in the
Racial formation in the United States : from the 1960s to the 1980s
1. Ethnicity 2. Class 3. Nation Towards a Racial Formation Perspective Part Two 4. Racial Formation 5. The Racial State Part Three 6. The Great Transformation 7. Race and Reaction Conclusion
An Analysis of the Problem of Disappearing Black Educators
There has been a significant decline in the number of minority teachers and principals, particularly blacks. The recent downturn has been so drastic that writers have referred to these groups as
Redefining Equality: Authoritarian Populism and the Conservative Restoration
  • M. Apple
  • Education
    Teachers College Record: The Voice of Scholarship in Education
  • 1988
As is evident, there has been a significant shift in public discourse on education. The rapid growth of evangelical schooling, the court cases involving “secular humanist” tendencies in textbooks,
Enormous Anomaly? Left-Right Parallels in Recent Writing About Race
Do you ever have the eerie feeling that far-left writers in the Critical Race Theory school and new-age conservatives of color like Clarence Thomas and Shelby Steele are saying much the same thing?
Transitional Bilingual Education and the Socialization of Immigrants
David Spener argues that U.S. educational policies reflect an implicit economic need to socialize immigrants and minority group members to fill necessary, but undesirable, low-status jobs.
When a Story is Just a Story: Does Voice Really Matter?
Analyzes and responds to an article criticizing the idea that some scholars of color write in a distinctive "voice" by virtue of their experience and background. Summarizes how conventional liberal