Tourette's syndrome: from behaviour to biology

  title={Tourette's syndrome: from behaviour to biology},
  author={Harvey S. Singer},
  journal={The Lancet Neurology},
  • H. Singer
  • Published 1 March 2005
  • Psychology, Medicine, Biology
  • The Lancet Neurology
The genetics of Tourette syndrome
An overview of the genetics of Tourette syndrome is provided and how this knowledge has improved understanding of the possible pathogenic mechanisms of this neurological disorder is highlighted.
A Review and Update on Tourette Syndrome: Where Is the Field Headed?
  • A. GunduzM. Okun
  • Psychology, Biology
    Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
  • 2016
The complexities of TS and the challenges in understanding its pathophysiology and in selecting the most appropriate treatment are discussed and an expert’s view of where the field of TS may be headed is offered.
The Gilles De La Tourette syndrome: the current status
  • M. Robertson
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Archives of Disease in Childhood: Education & Practice Edition
  • 2012
Intriguing neuroanatomical and brain circuitry abnormalities have now been suggested in GTS; the most evidence is for cortical thinning and a reduction in the size of the caudate nucleus.
Tourette Syndrome: Bridging the Gap between Genetics and Biology
The findings that are emerging from genetic studies will allow researchers to piece together the underlying components of the disease in the hopes that a deeper understanding of Tourette syndrome can lead to improved treatments for those affected by it.
Tics and Tourette Syndrome.
The purpose of this article is to present current information on the phenomenology, epidemiology, comorbidities, and pathophysiology of tic disorders and discuss therapy options to provide clinicians with the necessary information to deliver thoughtful and optimal care to affected individuals.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, tics and Tourette’s syndrome: the relationship and treatment implications. A commentary
  • M. Robertson
  • Psychology, Medicine
    European child & adolescent psychiatry
  • 2006
The comorbidity between TS and ADHD is discussed and treatment suggestions are offered, including atomoxetine, which although not documented widely in the setting of tics and TS, may prove useful in this setting; further research is required.
Tourette syndrome and comorbid ADHD: causes and consequences
Recent advances in neurobiology of ADHD and TS are reviewed, providing a basis for understanding the complex common pathogenesis underlying the frequent co-occurrence of the two conditions and the therapeutic choices.
Tourette's Syndrome.
Antineuronal antibody status and phenotype analysis in Tourette's syndrome
  • D. MartinoG. Defazio M. Orth
  • Psychology, Biology
    Movement disorders : official journal of the Movement Disorder Society
  • 2007
A comorbid diagnosis of ADHD was significantly less frequent in GTS patients positive for the anti‐60 kDa antibody only, and ANeA status does not differentiate a specific phenotype of GTS.


Tourette Syndrome and Other Tic Disorders Diagnosis, Pathophysiology, and Treatment
The definition, characteristics, pathophysiology, and treatment of tic disorders with a major emphasis on Tourette syndrome are discussed, with current evidence supporting a pathophysiologic mechanism involving synaptic neurotransmission, with the dopaminergic system as a primary candidate.
Tourette's syndrome and ‘PANDAS’ Will the relation bear out?
Research results supporting the concept of PANDAS are reviewed and it is discussed whether there is a true etiologic relation between streptococcal infection and the onset or exacerbation of childhood neuropsychiatric disorders and whether the use of immune-modifying therapies for these conditions is rational.
Neurobiology and neuroimmunology of Tourette’s syndrome: an update
It is concluded that Tourette’s syndrome is a heterogeneous disorder, and that immune factors may indeed be involved in some patients, and the proposed autoimmune hypothesis of Tourette's syndrome is challenged.
Surgery in Tourette syndrome
A review of the literature from 1960 until 2003 revealed 21 reports and 3 descriptions in textbooks covering about 65 patients in total who had undergone ablative procedures for intractable TS, with promising results on tics and obsessive‐compulsive symptoms.
Tics in Tourette Syndrome: New Treatment Options
  • Y. Awaad
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Journal of child neurology
  • 1999
Baclofen/botolinum toxin type A are very effective, safe, and reliable in the treatment of tics/Tourette's syndrome and it is worthwhile considering this treatment approach in patients with tics in order to reduce or avoid the side effects of other medications.
Influence of family history on clinical expression of Tourette’s syndrome
OCB is less prominent in SP than in familial TS, perhaps reflecting a more restricted pathophysiology in this subgroup, and cotransmission of OCB from an otherwise unaffected parent is common and significantly influences development of O CB and self-injurious behaviors, but not tics, in offspring.
The inheritance of Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome and associated behaviors. Evidence for autosomal dominant transmission.
Analysis of segregation analyses in 30 nuclear families provides strong support for the hypothesis that obsessive-compulsive disorder is etiologically related to Tourette's syndrome and chronic tics in these families, and that Tourette’s syndrome is inherited as a highly penetrant, sex-influenced, autosomal dominant trait.
A controlled study of Tourette syndrome. I. Attention-deficit disorder, learning disorders, and school problems.
There was no evidence that stimulants cause TS and they are often a valuable adjunct to the treatment of TS, and it is estimated that 10%-30% of ADDH is due to or associated with the presence of a TS gene.
Indications of linkage and association of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome in two independent family samples: 17q25 is a putative susceptibility region.
The findings warrant the further investigation of 17q25 as a candidate susceptibility region for GTS, and the background linkage disequilibrium (LD) of the region was studied in eight populations of European origin.