Totally drug‐resistant tuberculosis and adjunct therapies

  title={Totally drug‐resistant tuberculosis and adjunct therapies},
  author={Shreemanta K. Parida and Rebecca Axelsson-Robertson and Malavika Rao and N Singh and Iqbal Master and Anton A Lutckii and Salmaan Keshavjee and Jan Andersson and Alimuddin Zumla and Markus Maeurer},
  journal={Journal of Internal Medicine},
  pages={388 - 405}
The first cases of totally drug‐resistant (TDR) tuberculosis (TB) were reported in Italy 10 years ago; more recently, cases have also been reported in Iran, India and South Africa. Although there is no consensus on terminology, it is most commonly described as ‘resistance to all first‐ and second‐line drugs used to treat TB’. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) acquires drug resistance mutations in a sequential fashion under suboptimal drug pressure due to monotherapy, inadequate dosing… 

An overview of new antitubercular drugs, drug candidates, and their targets

Recent progress in the discovery of newly developed and Food and Drug Administration approved drugs as well as repurposed drugs, their targets, mode of action, drug‐target interactions, and their structure‐activity relationship are discussed.

Exploring the potential of adjunct therapy in tuberculosis.

Implications of Chromosomal Mutations for Mycobacterial Drug Resistance

It is imperative to understand drug resistance and its associated mechanisms in order to direct research efforts to the development of antituberculosis regimens with novel mechanisms of actions.

Evolution of Drug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Strains and Their Adaptation to the Human Lung Environment

This review will discuss M.tb phenotypic and genotypic changes driving resistance, including changes in cell envelope components, as well as recently described intrinsic and extrinsic factors promoting resistance emergence and transmission, and explore how drug-resistant M.Tb adapts differently than drug-susceptible strains to the lung environment at the cellular level.

Bedaquiline and delamanid in tuberculosis

Bedaquiline and delamanid appear to be promising new anti-TB drugs and their efficacy has appeared optimal in cases of adults with resistant pulmonary TB, but potential cardiologic side effects such as QT-interval prolongation have been associated with their use.

Drug-resistant tuberculosis in Central Mozambique: the role of a rapid genotypic susceptibility testing

This is the first report of a genotypic testing used to provide information about SLD resistance in Mozambique, where phenotypic susceptibility testing is usually unavailable.

Natural Remedies against Multi-Drug Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis

In the present review, the anti-tubercular medicinal plants native to India as well as the plants effective against MDR or XDR-TB across the globe are addressed.

Drug resistant Tuberculosis: A review.




Linezolid to treat extensively drug-resistant TB: retrospective data are confirmed by experimental evidence

Based on in vitro and pharmacological data, suggesting that linezolid (an oxazolidinone antibiotic) could be efficacious in treating mycobacterial infections, and on anedoctal evidence of its effectiveness in the smallest groups of patients, it was used off-label, despite its high price, to treat multidrug-resistant TB cases in several countries.

Totally drug-resistant tuberculosis in India.

The first patients from India with TDR tuberculosis are described, and drug susceptibility testing was performed at the Hinduja Hospital, the city's busiest referral laboratory and a Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) accredited laboratory.

Clinical and operational value of the extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis definition

The emergence of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis confirms that problems in tuberculosis management are still present in Europe and accessibility to quality diagnostic and treatment services should be urgently ensured and adequate public health policies should be rapidly implemented to prevent further development of drug resistance.

Molecular biology of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

The current understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying the profound drug resistance of M. tuberculosis is reviewed, which is essential for the development of more effective antibiotics, which are not only potent against drug resistant M tuberculosis strains but also help shorten the current treatment courses required for drug susceptible TB.

Emergence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with extensive resistance to second-line drugs--worldwide, 2000-2004.

New anti-TB drug regimens, better diagnostic tests, and international standards for SLD-susceptibility testing are needed for effective detection and treatment of drug-resistant TB.

Emergence of new forms of totally drug-resistant tuberculosis bacilli: super extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis or totally drug-resistant strains in iran.

The isolation of TDR strains from MDR-TB patients from different regional countries is alarming and underlines the possible dissemination of such strains in Asian countries.

Diagnosis of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis: Current standards and challenges.

  • G. MiglioriA. MatteelliD. CirilloM. Pai
  • Medicine, Biology
    The Canadian journal of infectious diseases & medical microbiology = Journal canadien des maladies infectieuses et de la microbiologie medicale
  • 2008
A narrative overview of the various diagnostic options available for XDR-TB, including conventional tools and newer rapid tests for drug resistance, including reverse hybridization-based assays, represent a useful tool because of their superior accuracy and cost-effectiveness.

Targeting multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) by therapeutic vaccines

Current perspectives of immunotherapy in MDR-TB are reviewed based on the knowledge of TB immunology and the profiles of several therapeutic vaccine products are discussed.

From Multidrug- to Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis: Upward Trends as Seen from a 15-Year Nationwide Study

Increasing severity in drug resistance patterns leading to more XDR- and “panresistant” TB cases in a country with a typically low TB incidence like Belgium represents a strong alert on worsening situations in other world regions and requires intense public health measures.

In vitro susceptibility testing and totally drug-resistant tuberculosis

To the Editor: We find the article by Migliori et al. [1], on extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB), very informative and would like to commend them for the excellent meta-analysis.