Total serum immunoglobulin M levels are affected by immunomodulators in seabream (Sparus aurata L.).

@article{Cuesta2004TotalSI,
  title={Total serum immunoglobulin M levels are affected by immunomodulators in seabream (Sparus aurata L.).},
  author={Alberto Cuesta and Jose Jaime Meseguer and Mar{\'i}a {\'A}ngeles Esteban},
  journal={Veterinary immunology and immunopathology},
  year={2004},
  volume={101 3-4},
  pages={203-10}
}
Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is a major component of the teleost humoral immune system. Despite the significance of IgM levels as an immune parameter, there are relatively few studies on changes induced in its total levels in serum. This study examines the effects of several immunomodulators (vitamin A, chitin, yeast cells or levamisole, which act as immunostimulants, and crowding, hypoxia or anaesthetics, which act as stressors) upon the total serum IgM levels of non-immunized gilthead seabream… CONTINUE READING

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