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Disintegration (morphologic abnormality)
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Apoptosis plays important roles in many biological processes • Physiological conditions – An intrinsic and integral component of physiology, just like proliferation and differentiation. – Embryonic development: e.g. in C. elegans, 131 out of a total of 1090 somatic cells are programmed to undergo apoptosis at pre- defined stages. – Cellular homeostasis: e.g. lymphocytes • Pathological conditions – Down-regulation of apoptosis: e.g. cancer, autoimmune disorders, persistent viral infections... – Up-regulation of apoptosis: e.g. many forms of degenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, ischemic injury from stroke (heart disease), post-menopausal osteoporosis... Apoptosis-cellular suicide-programmed cell death • ‘active’ (not passive) form of cell death by orchestrating its own silent demise. – Disables homeostatic and repair processes – Halts cell cycle progression – Induces structural disassembly and morphological changes – Marks the dying cells for engulfment and disposal • Several phases of an apoptotic process: – Initiation, execution and disposal 3 Parallel paradigms of apoptosis in C. elegans, Drosophila and mammals: the importance of caspases Apoptosis is executed by Caspases: Cysteinyl aspartate-specific proteinases: Death by a thousand cuts!
Hao Wu • Nov 30, 2017
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