Tornadoes from Squall Lines and Bow Echoes. Part I: Climatological Distribution


The primary objective of this study was to estimate the percentage of U.S. tornadoes that are spawned annually by squall lines and bow echoes, or quasi-linear convective systems (QLCSs). This was achieved by examining radar reflectivity images for every tornado event recorded during 1998–2000 in the contiguous United States. Based on these images, the type… (More)


13 Figures and Tables