Topologically Alice strings and monopoles

@article{Benson2004TopologicallyAS,
  title={Topologically Alice strings and monopoles},
  author={Katherine M. Benson and Tom D. Imbo},
  journal={Physical Review D},
  year={2004},
  volume={70},
  pages={025005}
}
Symmetry breaking can produce ``Alice'' strings, which alter scattered charges and carry monopole number and charge when twisted into loops. Alice behavior arises algebraically, when strings obstruct unbroken symmetries\char22{}a fragile criterion. We give a topological criterion, compelling Alice behavior or deforming it away. Our criterion, that ${\ensuremath{\pi}}_{0}(H)$ acts nontrivially on ${\ensuremath{\pi}}_{1}(H),$ links topologically Alice strings to topological monopoles. We twist… 

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