Topological Thouless pumping of ultracold fermions

@article{Nakajima2016TopologicalTP,
  title={Topological Thouless pumping of ultracold fermions},
  author={Shuta Nakajima and Takafumi Tomita and Shintaro Taie and Tomohiro Ichinose and Hideki Ozawa and Lei Wang and Matthias Troyer and Yoshiro Takahashi},
  journal={Nature Physics},
  year={2016},
  volume={12},
  pages={296-300}
}
Charge transport in a cyclically time-modulated periodic potential, also known as a topological Thouless pump, has been realized in an ultracold gas of fermionic atoms. An electron gas in a one-dimensional periodic potential can be transported even in the absence of a voltage bias if the potential is slowly and periodically modulated in time. Remarkably, the transferred charge per cycle is sensitive only to the topology of the path in parameter space. Although this so-called Thouless charge… 
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