Tools of the trade: psychophysiological interactions and functional connectivity.

@article{OReilly2012ToolsOT,
  title={Tools of the trade: psychophysiological interactions and functional connectivity.},
  author={Jill X. O’Reilly and Mark W. Woolrich and Timothy E. J. Behrens and Stephen M. Smith and Heidi Johansen-Berg},
  journal={Social cognitive and affective neuroscience},
  year={2012},
  volume={7 5},
  pages={
          604-9
        }
}
Psychophysiological interactions (PPIs) analysis is a method for investigating task-specific changes in the relationship between activity in different brain areas, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. Specifically, PPI analyses identify voxels in which activity is more related to activity in a seed region of interest (seed ROI) in a given psychological context, such as during attention or in the presence of emotive stimuli. In this tutorial, we aim to give a simple… 
Beyond Blobology: Using Psychophysiological Interaction Analyses to Investigate the Neural Basis of Human Communication Phenomena
Huskey shows how rapid advances in brain-imaging technologies have allowed for the systematic investigation of the mind/brain and researchers are increasingly utilizing these methods to examine the
Psychophysiological Interactions in a Visual Checkerboard Task: Reproducibility, Reliability, and the Effects of Deconvolution
TLDR
It is suggested that deconvolution may be not necessary for PPI analysis on block-designed data, and intraclass correlations between the two runs were much lower for the PPI effects than the activation main effects, which raise cautions on performing inter-subject correlations and group comparisons on PPI results.
Psychophysiological Interactions in a Visual Checkerboard Task: Reproducibility, Reliability, and the Effects of Deconvolution
TLDR
It is suggested that deconvolution may be not necessary for PPI analysis on block-designed data, and intraclass correlations between the two runs were much lower for the PPI effects than the activation main effects, which raise cautions on performing inter-subject correlations and group comparisons on PPI results.
Understanding psychophysiological interaction and its relations to beta series correlation
TLDR
This work explains what PPI measures and its relations to BSC, and explains how PPI models calculated from direct contrast between conditions could generate identical results as contrasting separate PPIs of each condition.
Psychophysiological interaction and beta series correlation for task modulated connectivity: modeling considerations and their relationships
TLDR
It is demonstrated that the PPI approach always measures connectivity differences as coded in the psychological variable, and it is established that putting some conditions of no-interest as 0 does not mean to “zero out” those conditions, but introduces arbitrary effects regarding to these conditions.
Time-resolved effective connectivity in task fMRI: Psychophysiological interactions of Co-Activation patterns
TLDR
This point process-based approach temporally decomposes task-modulated connectivity into dynamic building blocks which cannot be captured by current methods, such as PPI or Dynamic Causal Modelling, and identifies the occurrence of co-activation patterns at single frame resolution as opposed to window-based methods.
Using Psycho-physiological Interaction Analysis with fMRI Data in IS Research: A Guideline
TLDR
This work introduces psycho-physiological interaction (PPI) analysis, a technique that one can use to analyze fMRI data and shows how this analysis can inform IS trust research.
Analyzing task‐dependent brain network changes by whole‐brain psychophysiological interactions: A comparison to conventional analysis
TLDR
It is shown that, depending on the chosen parcellation frame, the whole‐brain PPI approach is able to detect a large amount of the information that is detected by the conventional approach, and allows identification of several additional task‐modulated connections, particularly from seed regions without significant activation differences between conditions.
Altered task-special connectivity of hippocampus during rt-fMRI neurofeedback training of emotion regulation
TLDR
The results demonstrate the feasibility of using the hippocampus as a feedback brain region for emotion regulation and reveal the interaction between different brain regions and psychological factors, which might be an objective way of assessing the success of neurofeedback.
Estimation of task-based modulations in functional connectivity with MEG: a comparison of methods
TLDR
The use of DCC is recommended for the detection of task-based changes in connectivity, as it provided better performance than SP-CCA and resulted in significant effects around the reference location which were not found with DCC, and which may be due to field spread.
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