Too proud to let go: narcissistic entitlement as a barrier to forgiveness.

@article{Exline2004TooPT,
  title={Too proud to let go: narcissistic entitlement as a barrier to forgiveness.},
  author={Julie J. Exline and Roy F. Baumeister and Brad J. Bushman and W. K. Campbell and Eli J. Finkel},
  journal={Journal of personality and social psychology},
  year={2004},
  volume={87 6},
  pages={
          894-912
        }
}
Narcissistic entitlement impedes forgiveness in ways not captured by other robust predictors (e.g., offense severity, apology, relationship closeness, religiosity, Big Five personality factors), as demonstrated in 6 studies. Narcissistic entitlement involves expectations of special treatment and preoccupation with defending one's rights. In Study 1, entitlement predicted less forgiveness and greater insistence on repayment for a past offense. Complementary results emerged from Study 2, which… 

Tables from this paper

Grandiose Narcissism and Fairness in Social Exchanges
The present study explored how the personality variable, grandiose narcissism, was associated with various responses to unfairness such as retaliation, forgiveness and avoidance. Participants
Entitled vengeance: A meta-analysis relating narcissism to provoked aggression.
TLDR
Narcissism was positively related to provoked aggression across studies, but that relation was stronger in child/adolescent samples and when measures of entitlement or vulnerable narcissism were employed.
Wealth and the Inflated Self
  • P. Piff
  • Psychology
    Personality & social psychology bulletin
  • 2014
TLDR
These findings offer novel evidence regarding the influence of social class on the self and highlight the importance of social stratification to understanding basic psychological processes.
Vulnerable Narcissism, Forgiveness, Humility, and Depression: Mediator Effects for Differentiation of Self
Vulnerable narcissism (VN), a central construct in Kohutian self-psychology, lags behind grandiose narcissism in the empirical research literature, yet a growing body of evidence suggests important
On the Meaning and Measure of Narcissism
TLDR
The studies show that measures of grandiosity and entitlement interact to predict scores on the NPI, controlling for gender, self-esteem, and basic personality, but also that grand Curiosity and entitlement function independently with respect to mental health and ethical misconduct.
For whom do we forgive? A functional analysis of forgiveness
We propose that people forgive to serve particular functions, depending on the extent to which forgiveness is intended to benefit the self, the offender, and their relationship. Three studies on
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 113 REFERENCES
Narcissists as “Victims”: The Role of Narcissism in the Perception of Transgressions
TLDR
The authors found that narcissism (particularly in its exploitiveness/entitlement dimension) was associated positively with the number and frequency of transgressions that respondents reported, and may be particularly useful for explaining why narcissistic people report higher rates of interpersonal transgressions in their daily lives.
Vengefulness: Relationships with Forgiveness, Rumination, Well-Being, and the Big Five
Because forgiveness theory has tended to neglect the role of dispositional factors, the authors present novel theorizing about the nature of vengefulness (the disposition to seek revenge following
Dealing with betrayal in close relationships: does commitment promote forgiveness?
TLDR
It is suggested that victims' self-oriented reactions to betrayal are antithetical to forgiveness, favoring impulses such as grudge and vengeance, and forgiveness rests on prorelationship motivation, one cause of which is strong commitment.
Narcissism, sexual refusal, and aggression: testing a narcissistic reactance model of sexual coercion.
TLDR
Laboratory analog studies investigated the theory that narcissism and reactance contribute to causing rape, finding that narcissists were more punitive than other men toward a female confederate who refused to read a sexually arousing passage aloud to them.
Dispositional Forgivingness: Development and Construct Validity of the Transgression Narrative Test of Forgivingness (TNTF)
Forgivingness is the disposition to forgive interpersonal transgressions over time and across situations. There is currently no acceptable measure of forgivingness for use in testing theoretical
Forgiveness, forbearance, and time: the temporal unfolding of transgression-related interpersonal motivations.
TLDR
The investigators proposed that transgression-related interpersonal motivations result from 3 psychological parameters: forbearance, trend forgiveness, and temporary forgiveness; the distinctiveness of each of these 3 parameters underscores the importance of studying forgiveness temporally.
Narcissism and Anger: An Exploration of Underlying Correlates
TLDR
The results imply that specific narcissistic traits such as a perceived position of authority and an inflated sense of entitlement, but not necessarily the global diagnosis of Narcissistic Personality Disorder, might be important to investigate as correlates of anger.
The Dynamics and Dangers of Entitlement
Excessive entitlement can accompany a range of other problems presented by patients encountered in psychotherapy. In its problematic form it is conceptualized here as having roots in emotional
Psychological Entitlement: Interpersonal Consequences and Validation of a Self-Report Measure
TLDR
The Psychological Entitlement Scale was found to be reliable and valid, not associated with social desirability, stable across time, and correlated negatively with two of the Big Five factors: agreeableness and emotional stability.
Remorse, Confession, Group Identity, and Expectancies About Repeating a Transgression
Within impression management and attribution research, confession presents a paradox. Rather than trying to reduce blame, confessors accept responsibility for the transgression. Yet confession is an
...
...