Tonic immobility during sexual assault – a common reaction predicting post‐traumatic stress disorder and severe depression

  title={Tonic immobility during sexual assault – a common reaction predicting post‐traumatic stress disorder and severe depression},
  author={Anna M{\"o}ller and Hans Peter S{\"o}ndergaard and Lotti Helstr{\"o}m},
  journal={Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica},
  pages={932 - 938}
Active resistance is considered to be the ‘normal’ reaction during rape. However, studies have indicated that similar to animals, humans exposed to extreme threat may react with a state of involuntary, temporary motor inhibition known as tonic immobility. The aim of the present study was to assess the occurrence of tonic immobility during rape and subsequent post‐traumatic stress disorder and severe depression. 

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This article reviews research concerning the possible relationship between tonic immobility (TI) and human reactions to sexual assault. This review includes a description of the characteristic

Victim Reactions During Rape/Sexual Assault

Overt signs of victim resistance during rape are critical issues in the handling of and recovery from rape/sexual assault. However, a substantial number of victims do not resist the attacker in any

Does guilt mediate the association between tonic immobility and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in female trauma survivors?

Tonic immobility (TI) is an involuntary freezing response that can occur during a traumatic event. TI has been identified as a risk factor for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), although the

The impact of tonic immobility reaction on the prognosis of posttraumatic stress disorder.

Is there tonic immobility in humans? Biological evidence from victims of traumatic stress

Human tonic immobility: measurement and correlates

TI may represent an extreme behavioral expression of trauma‐induced peritraumatic dissociation and significant positive correlations were found between the Tonic Immobility Questionnaire and measures of posttraumatic symptoms, dissociation, anxiety sensitivity, and absorption.

Tonic immobility mediates the influence of peritraumatic fear and perceived inescapability on posttraumatic stress symptom severity among sexual assault survivors.

This study evaluated whether tonic immobility mediates the relations between perceived inescapability, peritraumatic fear, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity among sexual assault survivors to suggest that tonic immersion could be one path through which trauma survivors develop PTSD symptoms.