Toll-like receptor signalling

  title={Toll-like receptor signalling},
  author={Shizuo Akira and Kiyoshi Takeda},
  journal={Nature Reviews Immunology},
One of the mechanisms by which the innate immune system senses the invasion of pathogenic microorganisms is through the Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which recognize specific molecular patterns that are present in microbial components. Stimulation of different TLRs induces distinct patterns of gene expression, which not only leads to the activation of innate immunity but also instructs the development of antigen-specific acquired immunity. Here, we review the rapid progress that has recently… 

Recognition of Pathogens: Toll-Like Receptors

This work discusses the rapidly accumulating members of the TLR family, their functions and signaling mechanisms, and describes their roles in the development of adaptive immunity.

Pathogen recognition with Toll-like receptors.

The Role of Toll-Like Receptors in Autoimmune Diseases through Failure of the Self-Recognition Mechanism

This review analyses the available data regarding TLR biochemistry, the specific mechanisms which are brought about by TLR activation, and the importance of these mechanisms in the light of any existing and potential therapies in the field of autoimmunity.

Evolution and integration of innate immune recognition systems: the Toll-like receptors

  • K. Takeda
  • Biology
    Journal of endotoxin research
  • 2005
In innate immunity, innate immunity represents a skilful system that senses microbial invasion and initiates appropriate immune responses, and TIR domain-containing adaptors play essential roles in TLR signaling.

Evolution and integration of innate immune recognition systems: the Toll-like receptors.

In innate immunity, innate immunity represents a skillful system that senses microbial invasion and initiates appropriate immune responses, and TIR domain-containing adaptors play essential roles in TLR signaling.

Toll-like receptors and human pathology

The future studies in this field will continue to improve the understanding of the pathogenesis and aetiology of these diseases and they will as well reveal information about therapeutic options.

Toll‐Like Receptors

Mammalian TLRs (TLR1 to 13) that have an essential role in the innate immune recognition of microorganisms are discussed, and TLR‐mediated signaling pathways and antibodies that are available to detect specific TLRs are discussed.

Negative regulation of Toll-like receptor signaling pathway.




Toll-like receptors and innate immunity

This review focuses on the functions of PRRs in innate immunity and their downstream signaling cascades and identifies cytoplasmic PRRs to detect pathogens that have invaded cytosols.

Toll-like receptors: critical proteins linking innate and acquired immunity

Evidence is accumulating that the signaling pathways associated with each TLR are not identical and may, therefore, result in different biological responses.

A Toll-like Receptor That Prevents Infection by Uropathogenic Bacteria

A member of the mammalian TLR family, TLR11, is reported that displays a distinct pattern of expression in macrophages and liver, kidney, and bladder epithelial cells, indicating a potentially important role in preventing infection of internal organs of the urogenital system.

Negative Regulation of Toll-like Receptor-mediated Signaling by Tollip*

It is reported that Tollip also associates directly with TLR2 and TLR4 and plays an inhibitory role in TLR-mediated cell activation and is phosphorylated by IRAK upon stimulation with lipopolysaccharide or IL-1.

Innate immune recognition.

Microbial recognition by Toll-like receptors helps to direct adaptive immune responses to antigens derived from microbial pathogens to distinguish infectious nonself from noninfectious self.

The repertoire for pattern recognition of pathogens by the innate immune system is defined by cooperation between toll-like receptors.

The data suggest that TLRs sample the contents of the phagosome independent of the nature of the contents, and can establish a combinatorial repertoire to discriminate among the large number of pathogen-associated molecular patterns found in nature.

The adaptor molecule TIRAP provides signalling specificity for Toll-like receptors

TIRAP, an adaptor protein in the TLR signalling pathway, has been identified and shown to function downstream of TLR4 and may account for specificity in the downstream signalling of individual TLRs.

Pattern recognition receptors TLR4 and CD14 mediate response to respiratory syncytial virus

A common receptor activation pathway can initiate innate immune responses to both bacterial and viral pathogens.

Mal (MyD88-adapter-like) is required for Toll-like receptor-4 signal transduction

A protein is described, Mal (MyD88-adapter-like), which joins MyD88 as a cytoplasmic TIR-domain-containing protein in the human genome, which is therefore an adapter in TLR-4 signal transduction.

Cell activation and apoptosis by bacterial lipoproteins through toll-like receptor-2.

BLPs were found to induce apoptosis in THP-1 monocytic cells through human Toll-like receptor-2 (hTLR2), which is a molecular link between microbial products, apoptosis, and host defense mechanisms.