Toll-like receptor 9 and 21 have different ligand recognition profiles and cooperatively mediate activity of CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides in zebrafish.


CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODNs) are potent immune stimuli currently under investigation as antimicrobial agents for different species. Toll-like receptor (TLR) 9 and TLR21 are the cellular receptors of CpG-ODN in mammals and chickens, respectively. The avian genomes lack TLR9, whereas mammalian genomes lack TLR21. Although fish contain both of these… (More)
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1305273110


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