Toll-deficient Drosophila is susceptible to Pythium insidiosum infection.

@article{Zanette2013TolldeficientDI,
  title={Toll-deficient Drosophila is susceptible to Pythium insidiosum infection.},
  author={R{\'e}gis Adriel Zanette and Janio M Santurio and {\'E}rico S Loreto and Sydney H Alves and Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis},
  journal={Microbiology and immunology},
  year={2013},
  volume={57 10},
  pages={
          732-5
        }
}
There is a paucity of animal models of pythiosis, a life-threatening disease of humans and animals, the immunopathogenesis of which is poorly understood. A pythiosis model was developed by injecting Toll (Tl)-deficient Drosophila melanogaster flies with Pythium insidiosum zoospores. The infected Tl mutant flies had significantly lower survival rates (73.7%) than did control flies. This study reveals the important role of Tl pathway activation in fly immune response to pythiosis. 
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