Occurrence of specific humoral non-responsiveness to swine antigens following administration of GalT-KO bone marrow to baboons.
BACKGROUND We have previously demonstrated that induction of mixed lymphohematopoietic chimerism resulted in donor specific renal allograft tolerance without the need for chronic immunosuppression in nonhuman primates. Here we have tested whether tolerance can be similarly induced for baboon to cynomolgus renal xenografts. METHODS After preconditioning with anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG), nonlethal total body irradiation, and thymic irradiation, cynomolgus monkeys underwent splenectomy, native nephrectomies, and baboon marrow and renal transplants. Postoperative cyclosporine was given for 28 days. RESULTS In Group 1 (n=2, survival= 13, 14 days), both animals developed anti-donor immunoglobulin G, had biopsy findings consistent with humoral rejection, and showed rapidly progressive xenograft failure. In Group 2 (n=5, survival=1, 16, 33, 112, 190 days), 15-deoxyspergualine was added to the regimen (Day 0-13). In one long-term survivor, donor specific hyporesponsiveness was first observed (mixed lymphocyte culture [(MLR]) on Day 48. MLR reactivity returned on Day 64 together with the development of anti-donor antibody and subsequent xenograft failure on Day 112. Donor specific T-cell hyporesponsiveness was detected in the other long-term survivor for the first 133 days, after which a donor-specific skin xenograft was placed, (survival 24 days). Following the skin graft rejection, a rise in the MLR, development of anti-donor antibody and progressive rejection of the renal xenograft were observed. CONCLUSIONS Antibody-mediated rejection seems to constitute the major difference between concordant xenografts and allografts. Addition of 15-deoxyspergualine for 2 weeks posttransplant extended concordant primate xenograft survival to 6 months without chronic immunosuppression. In contrast to the allogeneic model, renal transplant acceptance in this xenogeneic system was interrupted by placement of a donor-specific skin graft.