Tolerance and autoimmunity: lessons at the bedside of primary immunodeficiencies.

  title={Tolerance and autoimmunity: lessons at the bedside of primary immunodeficiencies.},
  author={Magda Maria Sales Carneiro-Sampaio and Ant{\'o}nio Coutinho},
  journal={Advances in immunology},
The recent progress in the genetic characterization of many primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) allows for a better understanding of immune molecular and cellular mechanisms. The present chapter discusses associations between PIDs and autoimmune diseases (AIDs) in this new light. PIDs are classified according to the frequency of association with AIDs, defining four groups of conditions: systematic (more than 80% of all patients), strong (10-80%), mild (less than 10%), and absent (no available… CONTINUE READING


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