Tolerance Allows Bonobos to Outperform Chimpanzees on a Cooperative Task

  title={Tolerance Allows Bonobos to Outperform Chimpanzees on a Cooperative Task},
  author={Brian A. Hare and Alicia P. Melis and Vanessa Woods and Sara Hastings and Richard W. Wrangham},
  journal={Current Biology},
To understand constraints on the evolution of cooperation, we compared the ability of bonobos and chimpanzees to cooperatively solve a food-retrieval problem. We addressed two hypotheses. The "emotional-reactivity hypothesis" predicts that bonobos will cooperate more successfully because tolerance levels are higher in bonobos. This prediction is inspired by studies of domesticated animals; such studies suggest that selection on emotional reactivity can influence the ability to solve social… Expand
Information transfer efficiency differs in wild chimpanzees and bonobos, but not social cognition
The results confirm the link between interdependence and cooperation performance and inform theories on the evolution of human cooperation by linking inter-group competition pressure and in-group cooperative motivation and/or capability. Expand
Cooperative problem solving in rooks (Corvus frugilegus)
Results may indicate that cooperation in chimpanzees is underpinned by more complex cognitive processes than that in rooks, which may arise from the fact that while both chimpanzees and rooks form cooperative alliances, chimpanzees, but not rooking, live in a variable social network made up of competitive and cooperative relationships. Expand
Bonobos Show Limited Social Tolerance in a Group Setting: A Comparison with Chimpanzees and a Test of the Relational Model
The social tolerance of bonobos is measured in an experiment recently validated with chimpanzees to allow for a comparative assessment of group-level tolerance, and it is found that the bonobo group studied here exhibited lower social tolerance on average than chimpanzees in this paradigm. Expand
How chimpanzees cooperate in a competitive world
The results suggest that the roots of human cooperation are shared with other primates, and shared mechanisms across the primates to mitigate competition for the sake of cooperation are suggested. Expand
Children, chimpanzees, and bonobos adjust the visibility of their actions for cooperators and competitors
It is demonstrated experimentally that chimpanzees and bonobos can take into account what others can see in cooperative interactions and their social-cognitive skills are thus more flexible than previously assumed. Expand
Bonobos and chimpanzees exploit helpful but not prohibitive gestures
Previous research has shown that chimpanzees exploit the behavior of humans and conspecifics more readily in a competitive than a cooperative context. However, it is unknown whether bonobos, whoExpand
Chimpanzees, bonobos and children successfully coordinate in conflict situations
Children and apes showed clear instances of strategic decision-making to maximize their own rewards while maintaining successful coordination in a Snowdrift game, which provides a model for understanding how organisms coordinate and make decisions under conflict. Expand
Evolution of food sharing and cooperative societies: comparative cognitive approach with bonobos, chimpanzees, and humans
Recent studies have revealed similarities and differences among hominids: humans, chimpanzees and bonobos. Cooperation is one of the human hallmarks, but its evolutionary basis can be found both inExpand
Targeted helping and cooperation in zoo-living chimpanzees and bonobos
This study supports the notion that bonobos might have a greater ability to understand social problems and the collaborative nature of such tasks, and examines whether helpers of six dyads of chimpanzees and bonobos transferred tools to a conspecific. Expand
Experimental evidence that grooming and play are social currency in bonobos and chimpanzees
While natural observations show apes use grooming and play as social currency, no experimental manipulations have been carried out to measure the effects of these behaviours on relationship formationExpand


Engineering cooperation in chimpanzees: tolerance constraints on cooperation
The cooperative abilities of captive chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, in experiments do not match the sophistication that might be predicted based on their naturally occurring cooperative behaviours.Expand
The Social Behavior of Chimpanzees and Bonobos: Empirical Evidence and Shifting Assumptions1
As our closest living relatives, chimpanzees and bonobos have been widely used as models of the behavior of early hominids. In recent years, as information on the social behavior and ecology ofExpand
Social Cognitive Evolution in Captive Foxes Is a Correlated By-Product of Experimental Domestication
The results suggest that sociocognitive evolution has occurred in the experimental foxes, and possibly domestic dogs, as a correlated by-product of selection on systems mediating fear and aggression, and it is likely the observed social cognitive evolution did not require direct selection for improved social cognitive ability. Expand
Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) learn to act with other individuals in a cooperative task
Two chimpanzees were presented with a task in which they were required to pull each end of a rope simultaneously to drag blocks supporting food into reach and began to solicit the human partner for cooperation: looking up at his face, vocalizing, and taking the partner’s hand. Expand
Why do chimpanzees hunt and share meat?
Although several factors are likely to affect chimpanzee hunting decisions and meat sharing, results indicate that primary causes will not be found through invoking simple energetic or reproductive considerations. Expand
Chimpanzees are more skilful in competitive than in cooperative cognitive tasks
In a series of four experiments, chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, were given two cognitive tasks, an object choice task and a discrimination task (based on location), each in the context of eitherExpand
Capuchin cognitive ecology: cooperation based on projected returns
Investigation on brown capuchin monkeys investigated if decisions about cooperation are guided by the amount of competition expected to follow the cooperation, and whether decisions are made instantaneously or only after a period of familiarization. Expand
Female relationships in bonobos(Pan paniscus)
Analysis of this bonding phenomenon sheds light on when, where, and how the authors should expect unrelated human females to bond with one another by demonstrating that bonding is not dependent on access to one’s relatives but rather on an environmental situation in which female aggregation is possible, coupled with an incentive for cooperation. Expand
Human-like social skills in dogs?
The study of convergent evolution provides an exciting opportunity to gain further insights into the evolutionary processes leading to human-like forms of cooperation and communication. Expand
The last ape. Pygmy chimpanzee behavior and ecology
  • F. White
  • Biology
  • International Journal of Primatology
  • 2005
This book represents a major work about the pygmy chimpanzees of Wamba that was previously available only in Japanese and almost nothing has been changed from the original 1985 publication, thus giving Western primatologists new insight into the rationale and approach of Japanese primatology. Expand