Tokenism and Women in the Workplace: The Limits of Gender-Neutral Theory

  title={Tokenism and Women in the Workplace: The Limits of Gender-Neutral Theory},
  author={Lynn E. Zimmer},
  journal={Social Problems},
  • L. Zimmer
  • Published 1 February 1988
  • Economics
  • Social Problems
The concept of “tokenism” has been used widely to explain many of the difficulties women face as they enter traditionally male occupations. Tokenism explains women's occupational experiences and their behavioral responses to those experiences in terms of their numerical proportion, suggesting that barriers to women s full occupational equality can be lowered by the hiring of more women in organizations that are highly-skewed male. This paper suggests that the tokenism hypothesis has not been… 


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