Tokenism and Women in the Workplace: The Limits of Gender-Neutral Theory

@article{Zimmer1988TokenismAW,
  title={Tokenism and Women in the Workplace: The Limits of Gender-Neutral Theory},
  author={Lynn E. Zimmer},
  journal={Social Problems},
  year={1988},
  volume={35},
  pages={64-77}
}
  • L. Zimmer
  • Published 1988
  • Psychology
  • Social Problems
The concept of “tokenism” has been used widely to explain many of the difficulties women face as they enter traditionally male occupations. Tokenism explains women's occupational experiences and their behavioral responses to those experiences in terms of their numerical proportion, suggesting that barriers to women s full occupational equality can be lowered by the hiring of more women in organizations that are highly-skewed male. This paper suggests that the tokenism hypothesis has not been… Expand
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Existing explanations of tokenism predict similar experiences for all numerically small, low-status groups. These explanations, however, cannot account for variation in the experiences of differentExpand
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GENDERED ORGANIZATIONAL LOGIC
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References

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This paper examines how gender as a status characteristic interacts with the effects of tokenism in two occupations. Data were gathered by observation and interviewing at two hospitals, each havingExpand
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This paper identifies and analyzes three constructs basic to the study of gender relations–boundaries, negotiation and domination, and consciousness. The concept of boundaries describes the complexExpand
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Questionnaire data from female employees in a large federal bureaucracy are analyzed to test two theories on the effects offemales' proportional representation in work groups on intraand intergenderExpand
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Female participation in employment, particularly in male-dominated elite occupations and professions, is often influenced by structures, ideologies, and recruitment patterns which effectivelyExpand
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American society is analyzed as a gender-class system wherein tokenism is defined as a form of interclass mobility. Two role partners, Sponsor and Token, sustain the institution of tokenism: theExpand
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This paper examines the barriers confronting women employed as correctional officers in men's prisons, using interview, questionnaire, and historical data from a state department of corrections inExpand
Token Women: An Empirical Test of Kanter's Hypothesis
In this article we test empirically Rosabeth Kanter's hypothesis that minority achievements are diminished by the underrepresntation of minority persons in majority-dominated work groups. using dataExpand
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