Tokenism and Women in the Workplace: The Limits of Gender-Neutral Theory

@article{Zimmer1988TokenismAW,
  title={Tokenism and Women in the Workplace: The Limits of Gender-Neutral Theory},
  author={Lynn E. Zimmer},
  journal={Social Problems},
  year={1988},
  volume={35},
  pages={64-77}
}
  • L. Zimmer
  • Published 1 February 1988
  • Economics
  • Social Problems
The concept of “tokenism” has been used widely to explain many of the difficulties women face as they enter traditionally male occupations. Tokenism explains women's occupational experiences and their behavioral responses to those experiences in terms of their numerical proportion, suggesting that barriers to women s full occupational equality can be lowered by the hiring of more women in organizations that are highly-skewed male. This paper suggests that the tokenism hypothesis has not been… 

RETHINKING TOKENISM:

The purpose of this article is to assess Rosabeth Moss Kanter's work on tokenism in light of more than a decade of research and discussion. While Kanter argued that performance pressures, social

Tokenism at Workplace: Numbers and beyond

The present research work intended to study the effect of Gender, Occupational gender type and proportional numerical strength on Work Alienation. According to Tokenism theory (Kanter, 1977),

WOMEN IN THE LAW:

Research on the entry of women into occupational settings confirms the importance of the structural composition of the workplace insofar as women are treated as tokens. This study examines women

Women's experiences of non-traditional employment: is gender equality in this area a possibility?

Currently, skills shortages are prompting the UK government to introduce initiatives intended to break down notions of stereotyped employment and attract women to non-traditional, male-dominated

Tokenism, Organizational Segregation, and Coworker Relations in Law Firms

Although occupational segregation by sex has declined in recent decades with the rising numbers of women entering traditionally male occupations (e.g., law and medicine), the achievement of women

Gender and Power: Boys Will Be Boys and So Will Girls

This paper examines the treatment of women by men in two areas of male-dominated employment: specific professions and non- traditional ‘manual’ employment such as construction, transport, and other

Cultural Foundations of Tokenism

Existing explanations of tokenism predict similar experiences for all numerically small, low-status groups. These explanations, however, cannot account for variation in the experiences of different

Looking beyond numbers: The effects of gender status, job prestige, and occupational gender-typing on tokenism processes.

Researchers of women workers in gender-skewed work groups repeatedly report evidence of visibility, contrast, and role encapsulation. The purpose of the present study was to explore the potential

Exploring the Impact of Gender, Proportional Numerical Strength at Workplace and Gender Typing of Jobs on the Experienced Work Alienation

The present research work intended to study the effect of Gender, Occupational gender type and proportional numerical strength on Work Alienation. According to Tokenism theory (Kanter, 1977),

GENDERED ORGANIZATIONAL LOGIC

This article uses Acker's theory of gendered organizations to frame an analysis of the ways in which policies and practices in a men's and a women's prison reflect and reproduce gendered
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 56 REFERENCES

Tokenism Reconsidered: Male Nurses and Female Physicians in a Hospital Setting

This paper examines how gender as a status characteristic interacts with the effects of tokenism in two occupations. Data were gathered by observation and interviewing at two hospitals, each having

Boundaries, Negotiation, Consciousness: Reconceptualizing Gender Relations

This paper identifies and analyzes three constructs basic to the study of gender relations–boundaries, negotiation and domination, and consciousness. The concept of boundaries describes the complex

Social structure and intergroup interaction: men and women of the federal bureaucracy

Questionnaire data from female employees in a large federal bureaucracy are analyzed to test two theories on the effects offemales' proportional representation in work groups on intraand intergender

Women and the world of work

I: Women and the World of Work: Contributions and Progress.- Women as World Makers.- The Education and Employment of Women Scientists and Engineers in the United States.- Elected Women: Skewers of

Women Lawyers in England

Female participation in employment, particularly in male-dominated elite occupations and professions, is often influenced by structures, ideologies, and recruitment patterns which effectively

The psychology of tokenism: An analysis

American society is analyzed as a gender-class system wherein tokenism is defined as a form of interclass mobility. Two role partners, Sponsor and Token, sustain the institution of tokenism: the

AN OFFICER AND A LADY: ORGANIZATIONAL BARRIERS TO WOMEN WORKING AS CORRECTIONAL OFFICERS IN MEN'S PRISONS*

This paper examines the barriers confronting women employed as correctional officers in men's prisons, using interview, questionnaire, and historical data from a state department of corrections in

Token Women: An Empirical Test of Kanter's Hypothesis

In this article we test empirically Rosabeth Kanter's hypothesis that minority achievements are diminished by the underrepresntation of minority persons in majority-dominated work groups. using data

Male Nurses: A Case Study in Status Contradiction and Prestige Loss

Male nurses in a psychiatric hospital were compared and contrasted to their female colleagues with respect to their conceptions of their intra-hospital status and their place in the general

Elected Women: Skewers of the Political System

The term “skewer” derives from two sources: the culinary arts and Rosabeth Kanter. As most women know, a skewer is a long, sharp pin stuck into a piece of meat to hold it together. As many social
...