Todea from the Lower Cretaceous of western North America: implications for the phylogeny, systematics, and evolution of modern Osmundaceae.

@article{Jud2008TodeaFT,
  title={Todea from the Lower Cretaceous of western North America: implications for the phylogeny, systematics, and evolution of modern Osmundaceae.},
  author={Nathan A. Jud and Gar W Rothwell and Ruth A. Stockey},
  journal={American journal of botany},
  year={2008},
  volume={95 3},
  pages={
          330-9
        }
}
The first fossil evidence for the fern genus Todea has been recovered from the Lower Cretaceous of British Columbia, Canada, providing paleontological data to strengthen hypotheses regarding patterns of evolution and phylogeny within Osmundaceae. The fossil consists of a branching rhizome, adventitious roots, and leaf bases. The dictyoxylic stem has up to eight xylem bundles around a sclerenchymatous pith. Leaf traces diverge from cauline bundles in a typical osmundaceous pattern and leaf bases… 
A silicified Todea trunk (Osmundaceae) from the Eocene of Patagonia
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This finding corroborates the widely disjunct Gondwanan distribution of Todea across the Southern Hemisphere in the past, and provides an impetus to re-assess genetic divergence between the relictual African and Australasian populations of TODEa barbara today in order to resolve the evolutionary history of the group more clearly.
Plenasium xiei sp. nov. from the Cretaceous of Northeast China: Additional evidence for the longevity of osmundaceous ferns
A new species of the Osmundaceae, Plenasium xiei sp. nov., is herein described from the Cretaceous of Northeast China. The specimens examined here represent the earliest unequivocal record of the
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An evolutionary classification for fossil Osmundales and a revised, standardized taxonomy for all taxa down to the rank of (sub)genus are proposed.
First record of Todea (Osmundaceae) in South America, from the early Eocene paleorainforests of Laguna del Hunco (Patagonia, Argentina).
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The Chinese fossil records cover almost all important stages for the macroevolution of the Osmundales, and contribute to further understanding of evolutionary processes of this peculiar fern lineage.
Ashicaulis beipiaoensis sp. nov., a New Osmundaceous Fern Species from the Middle Jurassic of Liaoning Province, Northeastern China
A new structurally preserved fern rhizome species, Ashicaulis beipiaoensis (Osmundaceae), is described from the Middle Jurassic Tiaojishan Formation in Beipiao City, Liaoning Province, northeastern
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TLDR
It is demonstrated that two main osmundaceous reproductive morphologies; i.e., differentiated reduced or unreduced fertile laminae were already present and widespread in Gondwana by this time, and suggested that fossil representatives are better placed in morphotaxa than in any current genus.
Osmunda pulchella sp. nov. from the Jurassic of Sweden—reconciling molecular and fossil evidence in the phylogeny of modern royal ferns (Osmundaceae)
TLDR
An exquisitely preserved Jurassic Osmunda rhizome (O. pulchella sp. nov.) is described that combines diagnostic features of both Osmundastrum and OSMunda, calling molecular evidence for paraphyly into question and concluding that the seemingly conflicting evidence from morphological, anatomical, molecular, and palaeontological data can be elegantly reconciled under the assumption that OSmunda is indeed monophyletic.
The anatomically preserved stem Zhongmingella gen. nov. from the Upper Permian of China: evaluating the early evolution and phylogeny of the Osmundales
TLDR
Stratigraphical analysis of the selected most parsimonious tree demonstrates that Osmundales underwent primary radiation during the Pennsylvanian and Permian, terminating abruptly around the time of the end-Permian mass extinction.
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