• Corpus ID: 46653868

Tocopherols and Tocotrienols : Similarities and Differences

@inproceedings{Papas2005TocopherolsAT,
  title={Tocopherols and Tocotrienols : Similarities and Differences},
  author={Andreas M. Papas and James H. Quillen},
  year={2005}
}
Tocotrienols are members of the vitamin E family.1 Unlike some vitamins which consist of a single compound, vitamin E consists of eight different compounds: four tocopherols and four tocotrienols (designated as alpha, beta, gamma, and delta). Our food contains all eight compounds. Most vitamin E supplements, however, contain only alpha-tocopherol because it was thought that only this one was important. Emerging research proved this understanding wrong. To get the full spectrum of the many… 

References

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TLDR
Some possible reasons for the observed differences between the tocopherols (α-, β-, γ-, and δ-) in relation to their interactions with the important chemical species involved in lipid peroxidation, specifically trace metal ions, singlet oxygen, nitrogen oxides, and antioxidant synergists are highlighted.

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TLDR
A fundamental difference in the chemical reactivities of alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tociperol with nitrogen dioxide (NO2), which leads to the formation of a nitrosating agent from alpha-tropopherol, but not from gamma-ocopherol is described, which suggests the superiority of gamma-ococopherol in a mammalian biological assay and a role for endogenous NO production in promotion of neoplastic transformation.

Penetration and distribution of alpha-tocopherol, alpha- or gamma-tocotrienols applied individually onto murine skin.

TLDR
Surprising was that the largest fraction of skin vitamin E following topical application was found in the deeper subcutaneous layers--the lowest layers, PD and D, contained the major portion of the applied vitamin E forms.

Effects of gamma-tocotrienol on ApoB synthesis, degradation, and secretion in HepG2 cells.

TLDR
It is speculated that the lack of cholesterol availability reduces the number of secreted apoB-containing lipoprotein particles by limiting translocation of apo B into the endoplasmic reticulum lumen.

Dietary alpha-tocopherol attenuates the impact of gamma-tocotrienol on hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity in chickens.

TLDR
It is reported that including alpha-tocopherol in tocol blends containing adequate gamma-tocotrienol to suppress 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity results in an attenuation of the tocotrienol action.

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TLDR
The use of combined alpha- and gamma- tocopherol supplements should be considered in upcoming prostate cancer prevention trials, given the observed interaction between alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocaperol, and selenium.

gamma-tocopherol and its major metabolite, in contrast to alpha-tocopherol, inhibit cyclooxygenase activity in macrophages and epithelial cells.

Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-catalyzed synthesis of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) plays a key role in inflammation and its associated diseases, such as cancer and vascular heart disease. Here we report

Diet-derived and topically applied tocotrienols accumulate in skin and protect the tissue against ultraviolet light-induced oxidative stress.

TLDR
The unique distribution of tocotrienols in skin suggested that they might have superior protection against environment stressors and the penetration of topically applied vitamin E (tocotrienol enriched fraction of palm oil, TRF) and vitamin E homologue concentrations before and after exposure of skin to UV-light was assessed.