• Corpus ID: 46653868

Tocopherols and Tocotrienols : Similarities and Differences

  title={Tocopherols and Tocotrienols : Similarities and Differences},
  author={Andreas M. Papas and James H. Quillen},
Tocotrienols are members of the vitamin E family.1 Unlike some vitamins which consist of a single compound, vitamin E consists of eight different compounds: four tocopherols and four tocotrienols (designated as alpha, beta, gamma, and delta). Our food contains all eight compounds. Most vitamin E supplements, however, contain only alpha-tocopherol because it was thought that only this one was important. Emerging research proved this understanding wrong. To get the full spectrum of the many… 



The chemistry and antioxidant properties of tocopherols and tocotrienols

Some possible reasons for the observed differences between the tocopherols (α-, β-, γ-, and δ-) in relation to their interactions with the important chemical species involved in lipid peroxidation, specifically trace metal ions, singlet oxygen, nitrogen oxides, and antioxidant synergists are highlighted.

Gamma-tocopherol detoxification of nitrogen dioxide: superiority to alpha-tocopherol.

A fundamental difference in the chemical reactivities of alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tociperol with nitrogen dioxide (NO2), which leads to the formation of a nitrosating agent from alpha-tropopherol, but not from gamma-ocopherol is described, which suggests the superiority of gamma-ococopherol in a mammalian biological assay and a role for endogenous NO production in promotion of neoplastic transformation.

Penetration and distribution of alpha-tocopherol, alpha- or gamma-tocotrienols applied individually onto murine skin.

Surprising was that the largest fraction of skin vitamin E following topical application was found in the deeper subcutaneous layers--the lowest layers, PD and D, contained the major portion of the applied vitamin E forms.

Effects of gamma-tocotrienol on ApoB synthesis, degradation, and secretion in HepG2 cells.

It is speculated that the lack of cholesterol availability reduces the number of secreted apoB-containing lipoprotein particles by limiting translocation of apo B into the endoplasmic reticulum lumen.

Dietary alpha-tocopherol attenuates the impact of gamma-tocotrienol on hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity in chickens.

It is reported that including alpha-tocopherol in tocol blends containing adequate gamma-tocotrienol to suppress 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity results in an attenuation of the tocotrienol action.

Association between alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, selenium, and subsequent prostate cancer.

The use of combined alpha- and gamma- tocopherol supplements should be considered in upcoming prostate cancer prevention trials, given the observed interaction between alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocaperol, and selenium.

gamma-tocopherol and its major metabolite, in contrast to alpha-tocopherol, inhibit cyclooxygenase activity in macrophages and epithelial cells.

Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-catalyzed synthesis of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) plays a key role in inflammation and its associated diseases, such as cancer and vascular heart disease. Here we report

A vitamin E concentrate rich in tocotrienols had no effect on serum lipids, lipoproteins, or platelet function in men with mildly elevated serum lipid concentrations.

The tocotrienol supplements used had no marked favorable effects on the serum lipoprotein profile or on platelet function in men with slightly elevated lipid concentrations.