Tobacco smoking, harm reduction, and biomarkers.


The only known way to reduce cancer risk in smokers is complete cessation, but many smokers are unable or unwilling to quit. Consequently, tobacco companies are now marketing products that purport to reduce carcinogen exposure, with the implication that such products provide a safer way to smoke. Moreover, researchers are exploring ways to reduce the amount… (More)


Cite this paper

@article{Shields2002TobaccoSH, title={Tobacco smoking, harm reduction, and biomarkers.}, author={Peter G. Shields}, journal={Journal of the National Cancer Institute}, year={2002}, volume={94 19}, pages={1435-44} }