Tobacco smoking and cancer: A meta‐analysis

  title={Tobacco smoking and cancer: A meta‐analysis},
  author={Sara Gandini and Edoardo Botteri and Simona Iodice and Mathieu Boniol and Albert B. Lowenfels and Patrick Maisonneuve and Peter Boyle},
  journal={International Journal of Cancer},
We conducted a systematic meta‐analysis of observational studies on cigarette smoking and cancer from 1961 to 2003. The aim was to quantify the risk for 13 cancer sites, recognized to be related to tobacco smoking by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), and to analyze the risk variation for each site in a systematic manner. We extracted data from 254 reports published between 1961 and 2003 (177 case‐control studies, 75 cohorts and 2 nested case‐control studies) included in… 
Impact of cigarette smoking on cancer risk in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition study.
  • A. Agudo, C. Bonet, E. Riboli
  • Medicine
    Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • 2012
Using data on cancer incidence for 2008 and the AF(p) estimates, about 270,000 new cancer diagnoses per year can be considered attributable to cigarette smoking in the eight European countries with available data for both men and women.
Tobacco smoking and the risk of gallbladder disease
Evidence of an increased risk of gallbladder disease associated with tobacco smoking is provided and there was indication of nonlinearity there was a dose-dependent positive association with increasing number of cigarettes smoked per day.
Cigarette smoking and the risk of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.
Systematic review with meta-analysis of the epidemiological evidence in the 1900s relating smoking to lung cancer
The association of lung cancer with smoking is strong, evident for all lung cancer types, dose-related and insensitive to covariate- adjusting, and emphasises the causal nature of the relationship.
Should we consider gallbladder cancer a new smoking‐related cancer? A comprehensive meta‐analysis focused on dose–response relationships
A moderately but significantly higher risk of gallbladder cancer for current but not former smokers is suggested, and the first report of a linear increase in gallbladders cancer risk according to smoking intensity and duration is provided.
Quantified relations between exposure to tobacco smoking and bladder cancer risk: a meta-analysis of 89 observational studies.
Dose-response meta-analyses showed a BC risk plateau for smoking intensity and indicate that even after long-term smoking cessation, an elevated risk of bladder cancer remains.
Characteristics of cigarette smoking without alcohol consumption and laryngeal cancer: overall and time-risk relation. A meta-analysis of observational studies
A meta-analysis of researches that had reported quantitative estimates of cigarette smoking and risk of laryngeal cancer by March 2016 demonstrated strong correlation referring to dose–response and time–response between cigarette smoking, particularly among former cigarette smokers who had stopped smoking for 15 or more years.
Smoking and colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis.
Cigarette smoking is significantly associated with colorectal cancer incidence and mortality, and the association was stronger for cancer of the rectum than of the colon.


Cigarette smoking and the risk of gastric cancer: A pooled analysis of two prospective studies in Japan
The hypothesis that cigarette smoking is a risk factor for gastric cancer is supported, as the risk was increased for both differentiated and nondifferentiated histologic subtypes.
A Pooled Analysis of Bladder Cancer Case–Control Studies Evaluating Smoking in Men and Women
The hypothesis that women have a higher relative risk of smoking-related bladder cancer than men is not supported because exposure-response patterns were remarkably similar between genders.
Gender differences in lung cancer risk by smoking: a multicentre case–control study in Germany and Italy
For comparable exposure to tobacco smoke, the risk of lung cancer is comparable in women and men, and also of analyses stratified by different histological types.
A case‐control study of dietary factors and stomach cancer risk in Poland
A case‐control study on stomach cancer conducted in 1980–81 in Cracow, Poland, where the risk of this disease is among the highest reported world‐wide, shows significant differences in consumption of fruits, joint consumption of vegetables, salads and fruits and protein‐containing foods.
Smoking and cervical cancer: pooled analysis of the IARC multi-centric case–control study
Smoking increases the risk of cervical cancer among HPV positive women, and recent increasing trends of smoking among young women could have a serious impact on cervical cancer incidence in the coming years.
Lung cancer rates in men and women with comparable histories of smoking.
Women do not appear to have a greater susceptibility to lung cancer than men, given equal smoking exposure, and research should be focused on enhancing preventive interventions for all.
Cancer and tobacco smoking; a preliminary report.
Reviews of the literature for the past twenty years reveals that it is often conflicting and that it consists for the most part of studies which are inconclusive because of lack of adequate samples, lack of random selection, no proper controls or failure to age-standardize the data.
Meta analysis of risk factors for colorectal cancer.
Risks of colorectal cancer are significantly associated with the histories of intestinal diseases or relative symptoms, high lipid diet, emotional trauma and family history of cancers, and suitable physical activities and dietary fibers are protective factors.
Mortality attributable to cigarette smoking in Taiwan: a 12-year follow-up study
Cigarette smoking has a striking impact on overall mortality and deaths from various causes in the Taiwanese population and should be established as the top priority in public health programmes in Taiwan.