Tobacco Industry Efforts Undermining Evidence Linking Secondhand Smoke With Cardiovascular Disease

  title={Tobacco Industry Efforts Undermining Evidence Linking Secondhand Smoke With Cardiovascular Disease},
  author={Elisa K. Tong and Stanton A. Glantz},
Background— The scientific consensus that secondhand smoke (SHS) increases cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk by 30% is based on epidemiological and biological evidence. The tobacco industry has contested this evidence that SHS causes CVD, but how and why they have done it has not been described. Methods and Results— About 50 million pages of tobacco industry documents were searched using general keywords and names of industry consultants and scientists. Tobacco industry–funded epidemiological… 

Epidemiological evidence associating secondhand smoke exposure with cardiovascular disease.

Considering the biological plausibility and dose-response relationship between SHS and CVD, effective interventions that incorporate a comprehensive screening method of behavioral and biological measures of exposure coupled with efficacious treatment should elicit favorable change for at-risk populations.

Second-Hand Tobacco Smoke and Cardiovascular Disease Risk: An Epidemiological Review

With the implementation of statewide and nationwide public smoke-free legislation across the United States and Europe over the last 10–15 years, there has been a significant and reciprocal decline in the incidence of emergency admissions for ACS by an average 17% despite persistent attempts on the part of the tobacco industry to diminish the correlation between SHS exposure and CHD.

Do we believe the tobacco industry lied to us? Association with smoking behavior in a military population.

It is suggested that anti-industry attitudes may affect smoking relapse following cessation, and recruits who had been smoking upon entry into BMT and who had acknowledged industry deception were less likely to report current smoking.

Secondhand smoke increases the risk of developing kidney stone disease

It is suggested that secondhand smoke is a risk factor for development of kidney stones and the need for a prospective evaluation of this finding is supported.

The perils of ignoring history: Big Tobacco played dirty and millions died. How similar is Big Food?

Analysis of empirical and historical evidence pertaining to tobacco and food industry practices, messages, and strategies to influence public opinion, legislation and regulation, litigation, and the conduct of science highlights important lessons that can be learned from the tobacco experience and recommends actions for the food industry.

Mortality risks associated with environmental tobacco smoke exposure in the United States.

  • Brian L. Rostron
  • Medicine
    Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
  • 2013
An association between high ETS exposure and heart disease mortality risk among never-smokers during short-term mortality follow-up is found using U.S. national health survey data.

Environmental tobacco smoke: health policy and focus on Italian legislation.

The smoking ban in Italy had reduced ETS pollution, as in the United States and in other countries all over the world, but the implementation of comprehensive legislation on smoking policy will necessitate other tobacco control measures for its successful fulfillment.

Association of secondhand smoke exposure with cardiometabolic health in never-smoking adult cancer survivors: a population-based cross-sectional study

This cross-sectional study suggests the association of SHS exposure with hypertriglyceridemia and provides evidence for marginal associations with other cardiometabolic risk factors in never-smoking adult cancer survivors and more studies are needed to develop evidence-based public health policies to minimize SHS exposures.



Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Heart Disease: A Critique of the Claims of Glantz and Parmley

An updated review of the epidemiological evidence reveals no association between heart disease and ETS exposure in the workplace and claims of an association with spousal smoking are weakened.

Environmental Tobacco Smoke and Coronary Heart Disease Mortality in the United States—A Meta-Analysis and Critique

An objective assessment of the available epidemiologic evidence indicates that the association of ETS with CHD death in U.S. never smokers is very weak, and previous assessments appear to have overestimated the strength of the association.

Environmental tobacco smoke, cardiovascular disease, and the nonlinear dose-response hypothesis.

Evidence is presented suggesting that this low-dose hypothesis is inconsistent with the biochemistry and physiology of platelets and with the literature on the cardiovascular pathology of active smoking.

Changing Conclusions on Secondhand Smoke in a Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Review Funded by the Tobacco Industry

Tobacco industry documents related to this review were examined to identify the company’s influence on the content and conclusions of this review, and corporate concerns about the possible adverse effects of SHS on maternal and child health were responded to.

Publication bias in the environmental tobacco smoke/coronary heart disease epidemiologic literature.

Two approaches are used to assess publication bias in the environmental tobacco smoke/coronary heart disease (ETS/CHD) literature: statistical tests applied to all sex-specific relative risk estimates from 14 previously published studies indicate that publication bias is likely, and comparison of pooled relative risk figures indicates that published data overestimate the association of spousal smoking and CHD.

Epidemiologic studies of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular disease and ETS exposure from spousal smoking.

The evidence linking heart disease and ETS exposure from a spouse has become substantially stronger since OSHA first proposed including heart disease in its risk assessment of ETS in 1994.

Cardiovascular Effects of Secondhand Smoke: Nearly as Large as Smoking

The effects of secondhand smoke are substantial and rapid, explaining the relatively large risks that have been reported in epidemiological studies.

Environmental tobacco smoke and cardiovascular disease. A position paper from the Council on Cardiopulmonary and Critical Care, American Heart Association.

The AHA's Council on Cardiopulmonary and Critical Care has concluded that environmental tobacco smoke is a major preventable cause of cardiovascular disease and death and strongly supports efforts to eliminate all exposure of nonsmokers to environmental tobacco Smoke.

Passive smoking and heart disease. Mechanisms and risk.

OBJECTIVE--Recent clinical, laboratory, and epidemiological evidence that passive smoking causes heart disease was reviewed, with particular emphasis on understanding the underlying physiological and