To what extent did Neanderthals and modern humans interact?

  title={To what extent did Neanderthals and modern humans interact?},
  author={Kristian J. Herrera and Jason A. Somarelli and Robert K Lowery and Rene J Herrera},
  journal={Biological Reviews},
Neanderthals represent an extinct hominid lineage that existed in Europe and Asia for nearly 400,000 years. They thrived in these regions for much of this time, but declined in numbers and went extinct around 30,000 years ago. Interestingly, their disappearance occurred subsequent to the arrival of modern humans into these areas, which has prompted some to argue that Neanderthals were displaced by better suited and more adaptable modern humans. Still others have postulated that Neanderthals… 

Did viral disease of humans wipe out the Neandertals?

Tracing Our Lineage: Molecular Contributions to the Construction of the Human Phylogeny

An expanding genetic analysis culminating in over 20,000 sequence alignments of all extant hominids has shown that chimpanzees and humans form a monophyletic clade, the closest relative of which is the gorilla.

Effect of ancient population structure on the degree of polymorphism shared between modern human populations and ancient hominins

It is argued that future attempts to investigate ancient hybridization between humans and other hominins should explicitly account for population structure, and recommend caution in inferring admixture from geographic patterns of shared polymorphisms.

Ancestry of modern Europeans: contributions of ancient DNA

All the ancient DNA studies performed to date on ancient European DNA from the Middle Paleolithic to the beginning of the protohistoric period are detailed.

The Importance of Croatian Pleistocene Hominin Finds in the Study of Human Evolution

In this chapter, we discuss Croatian sites that have yielded human skeletal remains from the Pleistocene. These include the well-known Neandertal localities Husnjakovo (at Krapina) and Vindija cave,

The Talking Neanderthals: What Do Fossils, Genetics, and Archeology Say?

This issue has been debated back and forth for decades, without resolution, but in recent years new evidence has become available that suggests Neanderthals have language.

Volcanic ash layers illuminate the resilience of Neanderthals and early modern humans to natural hazards

The results confirm that the combined effects of a major volcanic eruption and severe climatic cooling failed to have lasting impacts on Neanderthal or early modern humans in Europe and infer that modern humans proved a greater competitive threat to indigenous populations than natural disasters.

Anthropological issues in genetic admixture

The contributions of genetic admixture studies are discussed in furthering the authors' understanding of the demographic history of these populations and, more generally, of the role played by genetic admixtures in human.



Modern Humans Did Not Admix with Neanderthals during Their Range Expansion into Europe

A realistic model of the range expansion of early modern humans into Europe, and of their competition and potential admixture with local Neanderthals, shows that the absence of Neanderthal mtDNA sequences in Europe is compatible with at most 120 admixture events between the two populations despite a likely cohabitation time of more than 12,000 y.

Hominids and hybrids: the place of Neanderthals in human evolution.

Although many students of human evolution have lately begun to look favorably on the view that these distinctive hominids merit species recognition in their own right as Homo neanderthalensis, at least as many still regard them as no more than a strange variant of the authors' own species, Homo sapiens.

Speciation by distance and temporal overlap: a new approach to understanding Neanderthal evolution

Near East Neanderthals cannot be interpreted as the result of a migration of a European population toward the east, but as a continuum in space and time of European inhabitants, as they moved westwards, modern humans integrated local populations in the Near East and Central Europe and replaced populations in Western Europe.

Neanderthals in central Asia and Siberia

To determine how far to the east Neanderthals ranged, mtDNA sequences from hominid remains found in Uzbekistan and in the Altai region of southern Siberia are determined and it is shown that the DNA sequences from these fossils fall within the European Neanderthal mtDNA variation.

Molecular analysis of Neanderthal DNA from the northern Caucasus

Phylogenetic analysis places the two Neanderthals from the Caucasus and western Germany together in a clade that is distinct from modern humans, suggesting that their mtDNA types have not contributed to the modern human mtDNA pool.

Whither the Neanderthals?

Thousands of Neanderthal fossils and artifacts are known, making Neanderthals the best-characterized fossil humans. It is becoming increasingly clear that the Neanderthals and their modern human

No Evidence of Neandertal mtDNA Contribution to Early Modern Humans

The biomolecular preservation of four Neandertals and of five early modern humans was good enough to suggest the preservation of DNA, and in combination with current mtDNA data, this excludes any large genetic contribution by Ne andertals to early modern human humans, but does not rule out the possibility of a smaller contribution.

Evaluating Neanderthal Genetics and Phylogeny

Using Bayesian inference and the largest dataset to date, strong support is found for a monophyletic Neanderthal clade outside the diversity of contemporary humans, in agreement with the expectations of the Out-of-Africa replacement model of modern human origin.

Neanderthals and the modern human colonization of Europe

  • P. Mellars
  • Geography, Environmental Science
  • 2004
Recent research suggests that the roots of this dramatic population replacement can be traced far back to events on another continent, with the appearance of distinctively modern human remains and artefacts in eastern and southern Africa.

Climatic Changes, Paleogeography, and the Evolution of the Neandertals

  • J. Hublin
  • Geography, Environmental Science
  • 2002
Mainly because of historical reasons, Europe has provided the largest series of Middle and Upper Pleistocene hominids. Many of the sites which yielded these specimens can be placed in a reliable