To sum or not to sum: taxometric analysis with ordered categorical assessment items.

@article{Walters2009ToSO,
  title={To sum or not to sum: taxometric analysis with ordered categorical assessment items.},
  author={Glenn D. Walters and John Ruscio},
  journal={Psychological assessment},
  year={2009},
  volume={21 1},
  pages={
          99-111
        }
}
Meehl's taxometric method has been shown to differentiate between categorical and dimensional data, but there are many ways to implement taxometric procedures. When analyzing the ordered categorical data typically provided by assessment instruments, summing items to form input indicators has been a popular practice for more than 20 years. A Monte Carlo study compared the accuracy of taxometric analyses implemented in the traditional way (without summing items) and taxometric analyses… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Using the Comparison Curve Fix Index (CCFI) in Taxometric Analyses: Averaging Curves, Standard Errors, and CCFI Profiles
TLDR
A series of simulation studies examine the use of the CCFI to flesh out some empirically supported guidelines and find that constructing a CCFI profile can help to differentiate categorical and dimensional data and provide a less biased and more precise estimate of the taxon base rate than conventional methods.
Differentiating categorical and dimensional data with taxometric analysis: are two variables better than none?
TLDR
As long as high-quality data are available, it appears that one can have confidence in the results of taxometric analyses performed with only 2 variables, and the potential utility of 2- variables is illustrated using data on proactive and reactive childhood aggression.
Taxometric Analysis
  • J. Ruscio
  • Psychology
    Reference Module in Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Psychology
  • 2021
Whether individual differences are treated as categorical or continuous has consequences for theory, assessment, classification, and research in criminal justice. Paul Meehl's (1995) taxometric
Dimensions over categories: a meta-analysis of taxometric research
TLDR
The meta-analytic findings support the conclusion that the great majority of psychological differences between people are latently continuous, and that psychopathology is no exception.
Direct and Conceptual Replications of the Taxometric Analysis of Type A Behavior
TLDR
Direct and conceptual replications of the influential taxometric analysis of Type A Behavior suggest theoretical models of TAB, assessment practices, and data analytic procedures that assume a typology should be replaced by dimensional models, factorial subscale measures, and corresponding statistical approaches.
Overview of the Taxometric Method
Taxometric analysis is often used in clinical psychological research to determine whether a construct of interest is categorical or dimensional in nature. This chapter reviews the method and provides
Comparing the relative fit of categorical and dimensional latent variable models using consistency tests.
TLDR
An approach to consistency testing is presented that builds on prior work demonstrating that parallel analyses of categorical and dimensional comparison data provide an accurate index of the relative fit of competing structural models.
Using comparison data to differentiate categorical and dimensional data by examining factor score distributions: resolving the mode problem.
TLDR
Performing parallel analyses of categorical and dimensional comparison data and calculating an index of the relative fit of these competing structural models achieves much greater accuracy, improved base rate estimation, and afforded consistency checks with other taxometric procedures.
Taxometric analysis as a general strategy for distinguishing categorical from dimensional latent structure.
TLDR
It is concluded that the taxometric method may be an effective approach to distinguishing between dimensional and categorical structure but that other latent modeling procedures may be more effective for specifying the model.
Performing Taxometric Analysis to Distinguish Categorical and Dimensional Variables
TLDR
A practical introduction to the taxometric method is provided, updating earlier tutorials based on the findings of recent methodological studies, and revised guidelines for data requirements, indicator selection, parameter estimation, and procedure selection and implementation are offered.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 40 REFERENCES
Taxometric Analysis
Whether individual differences are treated as categorical or continuous has consequences for theory, assessment, classification, and research in criminal justice. Paul Meehl's (1995) taxometric
Comparing the relative fit of categorical and dimensional latent variable models using consistency tests.
TLDR
An approach to consistency testing is presented that builds on prior work demonstrating that parallel analyses of categorical and dimensional comparison data provide an accurate index of the relative fit of competing structural models.
Applying the Bootstrap to Taxometric Analysis: Generating Empirical Sampling Distributions to Help Interpret Results
TLDR
It is shown that iterative algorithms for creating bootstrap samples of taxonic and dimensional comparison data that reproduce important features of the research data with good precision and negligible bias can be used as an interpretive aid in taxometric research.
Assigning Cases to Groups Using Taxometric Results
TLDR
The present study compares the performance of two classification techniques—Bayes' theorem and a base-rate technique—across a wide range of data conditions and concludes that the base- rate classification technique achieves greater classification accuracy and a more even balance between sensitivity and specificity.
Bootstraps taxometrics. Solving the classification problem in psychopathology.
  • P. Meehl
  • Psychology
    The American psychologist
  • 1995
TLDR
Two taxometric procedures, MAMBAC and MAXCOV-HITMAX, provide independent tests of the taxonic conjecture and satisfactorily accurate estimates of theTaxon base rate, the latent means, and the valid and false-positive rates achievable by various cuts.
Taxometric and factor analytic models of anxiety sensitivity: integrating approaches to latent structural research.
TLDR
Findings suggest that the latent structural nature of AS can be conceptualized as a taxonic latent class structure composed of 2 types or forms of AS, each of these forms characterized by its own unique latent continuity and dimensional structure.
Is antisocial personality disorder continuous or categorical? A taxometric analysis
TLDR
Evidence that ASPD is dimensional suggests that it is best studied using continuous measures and that dichotomizing individuals into ASPD versus non-ASPD groups will typically result in decreased statistical power.
Taxometric Analysis: II. Detecting Taxonicity Using Covariance of Two Quantitative Indicators in Successive Intervals of a Third Indicator (Maxcov Procedure)
TLDR
Given three quantitative indicators of a conjectured latent taxon, a statistical function defined as the covariance of two indicators computed within successive intervals along the third indicator reveals whether the latent structure of the data is taxonic or not.
A taxometric analysis of the latent structure of psychopathy: evidence for dimensionality.
TLDR
Recent advances in taxometric analysis were added to P. Meehl's (1995) multiple consistency tests strategy for assessing taxonicity, and they indicated that both the individual components of psychopathy and their interface are distributed dimensionally.
Taxometric Analysis of the Antisocial Features Scale of the Personality Assessment Inventory in Federal Prison Inmates
TLDR
The Antisocial Features scale of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) was subjected to taxometric analysis and revealed consistent support for a dimensional interpretation of latent structure across the di ferent taxometric procedures as well as across gender, race, and security level.
...
...