To be or not to be: regulation of restriction–modification systems and other toxin–antitoxin systems

@inproceedings{Mruk2014ToBO,
  title={To be or not to be: regulation of restriction–modification systems and other toxin–antitoxin systems},
  author={Iwona Mruk and Ichizo Kobayashi},
  booktitle={Nucleic acids research},
  year={2014}
}
One of the simplest classes of genes involved in programmed death is that containing the toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems of prokaryotes. These systems are composed of an intracellular toxin and an antitoxin that neutralizes its effect. These systems, now classified into five types, were initially discovered because some of them allow the stable maintenance of mobile genetic elements in a microbial population through postsegregational killing or the death of cells that have lost these systems. Here… CONTINUE READING
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